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COLOR ATLAS AND TEXTBOOK OF HUMAN ANATOMY PDF

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Since this enzyme is also produced by noncholinergic neurons, the proper assay is by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme.

Other transmitters and neuropeptides can also be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry C.

It has been shown by double-labeling that many neuropeptides are produced together with classical neurotransmitters within the same neuron. So far, the functional significance of cotransmission, i.

The retrograde transport in the direction of the cell body and toward the minus end of the microtubules is mediated by dynein D2 , while the anterograde transport in the direction of the axon terminal and toward the plus end of the microtubules is mediated by kinesin D3.

The transporting vesicles are endowed with several motor proteins, the ATP-binding heads of which interact with the surface of the microtubule in an alternating and reversible fashion.

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This results in ATP being hydrolyzed, and the released energy is converted into molecular movement that causes the vesicles to roll along the microtubules in the target direction. The velocity of the rapid intra-axonal transport has been calculated at — mm per day.

Proteins, viruses, and toxins reach the perikaryon by retrograde transport from the axon terminals. In addition to the rapid intra-axonal transport, there is also a continuous flow of axoplasm which is much slower, namely, 1 — 5 mm per day.

Description

It can be demonstrated by ligating a single axon E ; proximal to the constricted site, the axoplasm is held back and the axon shows swelling. The anterograde and retrograde transport mechanisms are used in neuroanatomy to study connecting tracts see p.

Axonal Transport D, E The transmitter substances or their synthesizing enzymes are produced in the perikaryon and must be transported to the axon terminal.

The microtubules of the neuron, neurotubules D1 , play a key role in this transport mechanism. Internal intercostal muscles The internal intercostal muscles Fig.

Anteri- orly, each muscle continues between the costal cartilages to reach the lateral border of the sternum Fig. Posteriorly, each muscle extends only to the angles of the ribs, where it is replaced by the internal intercostal membrane, which continues as far as the tubercles of the ribs.

They form the lateral part of an incomplete layer of muscle which includes the transversus thoracis sterno- costalis anteriorly Fig. The innermost intercostal muscles connect the inner surface of each rib to that of its neighbours. Nerve supply All the intercostal muscles in a particular intercostal space are supplied by the corresponding intercostal nerve.

Actions Although the main role of the intercostal muscles is in ventilation of the lungs, it must be emphasized that during normal, quiet breathing the muscles of the thoracic wall make only a small contribution.

Inspiration is usually brought about mainly by the diaphragm, whose descent increases the vertical diameter of the thorax. The transverse and anteroposterior diameters of the thorax are increased, especially in deep inspiration, by the external inter- costal muscles, which incline the ribs outwards, upwards and forwards so that the intercostal spaces are widened. However, the internal intercostal muscles contribute to forced expiration by drawing the ribs down- wards and inwards, thereby narrowing the intercostal spaces.

Intercostal vessels and nerves Each intercostal space has a principal artery, vein and nerve, which collectively form the neurovascular bundle Fig. The muscle is a powerful protractor of the scapula and assists trapezius in producing scapular rotation during abduction of the upper limb.

In addition, the muscle helps to stabilize the scapula during movements of the upper limb. Intercostal spaces The interval between two adjacent ribs is called an intercostal space.

On each side of the thorax there are 11 such spaces, num- bered from above and occupied by muscles, membranes, nerves and vessels. The number given to each intercostal space and its neurovascular structures corresponds to that of the rib which limits the space superiorly.

Color Atlas and Textbook of Human Anatomy Vol 2 5th Ed. [H.fritsch,W.kuehnel]

The nerves and vessels immediately inferior to the twelfth ribs are termed the subcostal nerves and vessels. The intercostal nerves and vessels supply the intercostal muscles and 33Thoracic wall S I LR Sternocleido- mastoid Perforating branches of internal thoracic arteries Subclavian vein External intercostal muscle Second rib Internal intercostal muscles Xiphoid process Body of sternum External intercostal membranes Fig.

Most intercostal nerves have cutaneous branches that supply the skin covering the chest and abdominal walls.

These are named the external, the internal and the innermost intercostal muscles. The muscle extends from the tubercle of the rib posteriorly to the junction of the rib and its costal cartilage anteriorly.The middle mediastinum contains the heart and pericardium.

Since this enzyme is also produced by noncholinergic neurons, the proper assay is by immunocytochemistry using antibodies against choline acetyltransferase, the acetylcholine-synthesizing enzyme.

From there the blood is directed by the valve of the inferior vena cava toward the foramen ovale Al0 that lies in the septum between the right and left atria and connects them.

The two vertebral arteries unite to form the basilar artery B9. Additional thoracic cardiac branches AS arise from the upper thoracic ganglia and likewise pass to the cardiac plexus.

Portal circulation is a special part of th. The inconstant arcuate artery

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