ENGLISH SHORTHAND LEARNING BOOK PDF
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Learn Pitman English Shorthand (Free download pdf file) - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. Learn Pitman. A dictation book on unique lines, be practice. ISAAC PITMAN' S SHORTHAND DICTIONARY. A PRACTICAL COURSE IN TOUCH TYPE. WRITING. possi ble,bec ause a kn owl edge of them is n ecessaryin fastwritin g. Throughou t the exerc i ses in thi s book the grammalogs an d c on traction s are prin te d in.
Strokes with attachments
All the horizontal and downstrokes are paired, thick and thin, to match the related sounds of voiced and unvoiced. No thick stroke is ever written upwards, Thick and thin refers to the width of the line and not the lightness or darkness of the colour, although the thick lines may end up being darker in colour because it takes pressure to form them.
The outlines here were written with blue ink in a shorthand pen with flexible nib, and therefore the thick strokes appear darker because of the pooling of the ink. Pencil outlines may also show variation between grey and black. Black ink should produce much less variation in shade. Some older books refer to shading which should not be taken literally but is a description of the overall appearance of the marks. No basic stroke represents more than one sound.
A stroke can have other consonants added to it by various means e. A vertical dash vowel, e. The only time the pen writes upwards is while completing a circle or hook. Some dash vowels may sometimes have an upward slant when written to curves. There is no stroke or sign that is written straight upwards in its basic form; however, the halved Ess is written upwards in certain situations being a halved stroke and therefore similar to writing half of a Circle Ses, part of which would necessarily have to be written upwards : educationist expressionist impressionist This is the shorthand form for a word, before the unattached vowel signs are added.
Write the strokes one after the other, joining them end to end, without stopping at the angles, lifting the pen or going back to thicken or correct any part. All the strokes must be completed before inserting any further dots, dashes, vowel signs or intersections.
Each stroke must be written in its correct direction. A few strokes have alternative directions in which they may be written, in certain circumstances. Advanced writers often find other uses for proximity in their phrases, enabling them to leave out obvious words: I am confident, in control Packing your shorthand outlines tightly together along the line is not a good idea, as proximity is meaningful in certain circumstances. The only time to do that is when you are running out of paper in an emergency or writing that time-honoured secret shorthand postcard that the postman cannot read!
Learn Pitman English Shorthand (Free download pdf file)
There is a wide choice here, and every shorthand writer is free to create their own intersections to reflect their own needs: political party, service department, application form, at the beginning Top of page In any combination of strokes, it should be clear which strokes are involved and where each one starts and stops.
Alternative methods are used in the following combinations: a Three similar straight strokes in succession — break up the outline, use the hyphen sign if it helps: pop-up cake-cutter Where a halved or doubled straight stroke would not make an angle with other strokes in the outline: popped Babette judged cooked dotted fact factor liked bonnet A succession of all up- or downstrokes: 3 is maximum, 4 should be avoided to prevent the outline invading the line below or above, causing delays and interference.
One might get away with 4 downstrokes if it started above the line, but these start already through the line. I would suggest breaking the words up — this gives the advantage that you can place both parts in position to indicate the vowel. This is also relevant for many words where it is not settled in usage whether it is one word, hyphenated or two words. You should write a reliable and convenient outline, and make a separate decision on how it should be transcribed.
Top of page Adding vowel signs to an outline is called vocalising. An outline without its vowels is not considered incomplete. Dictionaries always show all the vowels. Dot "con-", dot "-ing" and dash "-ings" are considered part of the outline, in the same way as joined diphthongs, and, unlike the unattached vowel signs, they should never be left out, except when using proximity for "con-".
Adding or omitting unattached vowels is a choice that is left to the writer. You should always include those vowels that you think will help you read the shorthand. If you always write in all the vowels, your speed will be severely hampered, and you should endeavour to omit all but the essential ones. When dictation slows right down or there is a breathing space, it is tempting to go back and put in all the vowels.
Immediately upon finishing the dictation, read through the entire piece and rewrite troublesome outlines in the margin, while they are still fresh in your mind — do not alter your actual notes in any way.
Pub sign in Swanley A reminder to check, check and check again. Never leave the exam room before the end of the time. Use every second to read, check, reread and recheck. Even if you believe you have correctly transcribed every word of your shorthand, spend the remaining time ensuring that your longhand handwriting contains nothing ambiguous — if the examiner misreads, or cannot read, your longhand, you will still lose a mark.
Consider the other students, who will get distracted seeing you leave the room if it is allowed. They may become discouraged even if you just put your pen down, yawn and cross your arms.
I believe it is better not to consume food or drink laden with sugars or preservatives, before or on the exam day. You want to be alert, and not a ghastly combination of sugar-sedated and preservative-edgy-jumpy. Do not attempt to cram or learn anything on the exam day.
Restrict yourself to hand-relaxing fluency drills. In my exams we had warm-up passages at a slightly higher speed, mainly to allow the students to get used to the reader's voice. Warm-ups are a great help in getting your mind in gear, but you should check up on the arrangements for your exam.
You should ask your teacher whether your actual shorthand will be marked. For the lower speeds it probably will. Cold hands are unlikely to produce fast writing, so allow extra time to do this. Supposing your flustered shorthand classmate has forgotten their pad — an unbearable thought.
Be kind and take a spare one! Arrive early and be a model of calm, collected confidence, someone to whom shorthand is as natural as breathing. Fatigue Fatigue and tension from long periods of study is no encouragement to carry on with studies. Purposely avoiding it will speed up progress.
Learn one short item of shorthand theory at a time, practise well and then leave it for something else. When you come back to it after your break, the "new" item will look like an old friend.
Learn Pitman English Shorthand (Free download pdf file)
I discovered this principle by accident when learning to touch type at home, and narrowed it down to 20 minutes on and 10 minutes off. When I came back to the typewriter keyboard, my fingers instantly flew to the correct keys, because they had had a rest. I did not know how it worked I think it is called "muscle memory" , but I certainly made full use of it from then on and found it can be applied to mental processes as well. The main point is not the number of minutes, but to stop well before the point of fatigue and change the type of activity.
Time off is allowed and you can't do without it, but. Even the shadows on the parasol will look like outlines Talking of the fridge My own battle with fatigue was solved by improving diet. Unhealthy eating habits cloud the mind and prevent weight loss.
I heartily recommend home-made fruit smoothies as a contributor to improved health and a clear mind. If you include milk cow's, rice, oat, soya etc and some banana, it is a complete meal in itself.
On the day of the shorthand exam, you need an instantly-digested meal that will leave you awake and alert, not sluggish and falling asleep while heavy foods are being digested. In fact, why wait until an exam day? They're looking for someone with shorthand over at xxx office, earning xxx, wish I could apply for that job!
Professional instruction is the ideal, however, to present the material in easy chunks, in the correct order and with graded exercises and live dictation. Just as importantly, your teacher will see where you are going wrong and step in to correct it. Seeing the whole system at once, in minute detail as described here, may be off-putting for the beginner, so concentration on the book with its gradual presentation is what is needed at first. You can learn and use shorthand proficiently your entire life without knowing the minutiae of shorthand theory.
These pages are best used for revision, or for clearing up any query when there is no tutor to ask. I hope your shorthand colleagues are as friendly as mine were, sharing each other's speed triumphs and competing only with the "dictator" and not each other. One last thing to remember — not one of the high speed wpm writers was born knowing a single stroke or dot of shorthand, their first efforts were exactly the same as yours or mine.
Is it visible yet? Wisteria How a beginner might feel after their first shorthand lesson. This is short-lived and not worth giving any of your precious time and energy. If you wish to share the content, please do so by a link to the appropriate page of the website.
Free Web Counter from www.If the first up or downstroke is a doubled one, then the first half of it is placed in position:. Derivatives of this, as well as similar words and their derivatives appreciation etc, see above all use stroke Ish and this should be adhered to, as not all of them can be pronounced with the S sound as an alternative. Any contraction decided upon must not clash with "revaluation". In many words the second syllable starts with a consonant.
Consider the other students, who will get distracted seeing you leave the room if it is allowed.
Initial semicircle is only used with simple strokes, so use stroke Way if the next stroke is hooked:. L Hook — Shel is always up, and the central vowel is not shown if it is a short E or a slurred vowel:.
However, the telephone message pad is a painless place to start using your new skill. People do make up words and the shorthand writer has to write them, whether they are in the dictionary or not.
This second Australian edition of the Instructor commemorates the centenary of the system of shorthand invented by Sir Isaac Pitman, who, in , published his first treatise on the art.
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