MUSIC THE BUSINESS ANN HARRISON PDF
instruktsiya.info - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online. This essential and highly acclaimed guide, now updated and revised in its sixth edition, explains the business of the British music industry. Whether you're a recording artist, songwriter, music business manager, industry Ann Harrison runs her own successful legal consultancy.
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Results 1 - 30 of Music: The Business 7 ed by Harrison, Ann and a great selection of related books , art and collectibles available now at instruktsiya.info Music: The Business - 6th Edition by Ann Harrison, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. London: Virgin Books. Harrison, Ann. (). Music - the business: the essential guide to the law and the deals. (Fully rev. and updated 5th ed). London: Virgin.
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Music: The Business - 6th Edition
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View Synopsis. The Business 7th edition Fully Revised and Updated, including the latest developments in music streaming by Ann Harrison. Buy the eBook Price: Choose Store. Or, get it for Kobo Super Points! Disintermediation, on the other hand, may have the effect that the current structure is short-lived because it poses two possible challenges to the power of the record labels and publishers.
One direct challenge arises from the entry of new players offering increased competition. This enables creators either to take control directly, by becoming the new centre of gravity of contracts, or to threaten to do so to strengthen their bargaining position during negotiations.
In this regard, it is beneficial that major retailers, such as Amazon, are used to dealing with small independent retailers and sometimes even individual sellers. A better understanding of the developments in the structure of this industry will help us predict future effects on both creators and consumers.
As copyright is another major driver shaping creative industries, a key element of this paper is to provide an appreciation of the effects of and recent developments in this area. Throughout the paper we have tried to identify relevant data. Finding consistent data on variables, such as market shares, is surprisingly hard. What we do find is that, while there are some features in common with what can be observed in the market for books, there are also important differences. As with books, the retail sector has become dominated by a small number of firms.
Those creating music have available internet services which enable them to produce and even retail their own music without going through the traditional channels of record labels, publishers and collecting societies.
In contrast to the book industry, the market shares, in particular of digital music, of the top three largest record labels have remained more or less constant, possibly due to the complexities of the exploration of copyright within the music industry. Section 3 focuses on the legal framework surrounding creation and commercialisation of music.
Section 4 discusses the evolution in the market structure in the music industry. Finally, section 5 offers some brief conclusions.
With digital music, we saw the decline of physical mediums on which music was recorded and an increase in types of devices on which music could be played. While the CD was the first medium on which one could store digital music, the big leap was the creation of the MP3 file format, which compressed the file size of a recording without noticeable loss in quality. The real effect of this was not fully realised until the introduction of portable devices such as MP3 players and iPods, enabling consumption of music wherever the listener was located.
The iPod first generation, launched in , was a huge improvement on other MP3 players. These portable devices have subsequently been constantly improved and today, in addition to much larger storage capacity, include numerous improvements including, for example, powerful processors and a high-quality screen capable of displaying video.
Whilst MP3 continued to evolve, new ways of listening to music emerged. Today, consumers listen to music on other portable devices such as smartphones, tablets, and even watches. The launch of the Apple iTunes Music Store in was the start of a new business model in which digital delivery, through the purchase and download of albums and individual tracks, was the product on offer. This helped catapult iTunes to the forefront of the music distribution business, making it the largest music distributor in the world since Other web-based retailers followed, making use of the increased number of devices capable of playing music.
The number of downloads initially grew rapidly, outstripping sales of CDs and other physical means of consuming music, but have since been overtaken by streaming. Music streaming services are broadly speaking services which enable the consumer to listen to the music without downloading it.
Launched in , Pandora appears to be the pioneer in music streaming services. This initiative tried to revive the Music Genome Project,  a sophisticated taxonomy of musical information generated by music experts which was then fed into an algorithm enabling users to listen to music matching their tastes. While Pandora might have become a very popular service for listeners, it was less popular with creators. It is easy to appreciate the concerns of creators about a service which enabled users across the world to access tens of thousands of works without purchasing tracks or albums.
To this day, the battle over royalties paid to creators and collecting rights societies continues, at least partly due to the large differences in the gross pay-out per stream to labels. When buying the album, the consumer took the risk that they might not enjoy the album as much as expected, whereas with pay-per-play the creators take the risk that the consumer may lose interest in their music.
This makes comparing the two scenarios challenging. Not only does one have to allow for potentially greater revenue from both those who listen a lot and those who listen a little, one must also allow for the impact of the risk premium on sales.
Despite the similar features between Pandora and Spotify,  these two streaming services differ in various ways. Spotify was classified as an interactive service and Pandora as a non-interactive service closer to radio , which has consequences on the applicable licensing scheme.
The arrival of streaming services went one step further in connecting users. Both Pandora and Spotify provide their users with the ability to connect with friends, share music they like, and recommend either tracks or entire playlists to other users. Nevertheless, streaming services do not provide identical social features.
Finally, Spotify offers the possibility for users to collaborate and create playlists together. Today, other streaming services have emerged, such as iHeartRadio, iTunes music, Google Play, Rhapsody and other new names keep entering the market, e. Furthermore, in YouTube developed its own music app, YouTube Music, aimed at enabling users to search only for music-related results.
By the end of , YouTube had signed agreements with the three major record labels to share revenue, in addition to agreements previously reached with collecting Rights Societies, such as PRS for Music in From different directions, the services all appear to travel towards subscription-based streaming. It is notable that previous digital products, such as CDs and downloads, have grown rapidly only to peak and then to decline vinyl appears to be the odd one out as a medium which is growing again as it becomes collectable.
Does the consumer view radio, non-interactive streaming e. Pandora , and interactive e. Spotify streaming as close substitutes? From the consumer perspective, a key difference between non-interactive and interactive streaming is that for the former, users do not control the songs played next mimicking a radio broadcast and for the latter users choose the tracks which are played. The services historically relied on advertising to generate revenue e.
YouTube or ad-funded Spotify , but have slowly but increasingly introduced subscription models. In this regard, YouTube has been growing exponentially, leading to a battle between the music industry and YouTube to ensure fair remuneration. On their own, these changes would be expected to lead to significant changes in industry structure.
However, the power of these developments to change structure depends, at least to some extent, on the rules provided by the copyright framework.
In the next section we summarise this framework to illustrate that it still favours the traditional intermediaries who are able to spread the transaction cost of managing the framework across the output of creators and artists. By conferring a bundle of rights to right-holders, creators can license their works in the UK and around the world, and generate revenue to incentivise investment in creating new creative content.
Digitalisation and the growth of the internet have fundamentally transformed the way we access and listen to music, but they also and continue to require the music sector constantly to reinvent itself to extract revenues from the emerging services and platforms while shielding copyright-protected works from copyright infringement.
Given the central role of copyright in the music industry, this section will give an overview of some of the key copyright principles applicable in the UK. CD, MP3, or other digital file , who therefore does not own the copyright s embodied within it. Users who purchase a CD lawfully are not entitled to copy or communicate its content if they do not own the copyright s in the song.
However, current technology allows user to easily copy or communicate works whether it is to burn a CD or copy a digital file. Indeed, once copyright subsists in a work, its right-holder is granted a bundle of exclusive  rights. First, the right-holder is provided with a set of economic rights  to cover activities such as copying the work, communicating the work to the public, making adaptations, issuing copies of the work to the public, performing the work in public, broadcasting or sending a cable transmission of the work which includes digital transmission , and lending the work to the public.
These rights are designed to enable the right-holder to extract rent, which is then dispersed according to contractual arrangements with those involved in producing the object of the copyright. The costs and effectiveness of this rent extraction may depend on to whom the rights are finally assigned to.
Secondly, moral rights are granted to authors. However, these can be waived  and are transferrable upon death. While these rights were initially reserved for public performances only,  the EC Rental Directive  extended the protection to anyone involved in a recording — including both featured and session musicians — when licensed for broadcast purposes.
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This extension of rights complicates the production of recorded music, because activities that had previously simply been an input into the process, remunerated only once, are now potentially entitled to an ongoing stream of income.
A consequence of this is that a larger group of musicians depend on the success of the recording, and hence a group that had not previously borne any risk now does. In effect, after the change, more of those involved in producing music faced a remuneration based partly on the success of the performance. Since this group is getting a deferred, if uncertain, income, standard economic logic based on the principal-agent theory  would imply that their initial fee or salary would be reduced.
By how much depends on the size of the risk and their attitude to risk. The greater the risk and the more they dislike risk, the greater a risk-premium has to be included in the initial fee or salary. The standard reason for the principal to link remuneration to outcome is to provide incentives for the agent to put in the appropriate effort. The standard problem is that increasing incentives usually imply increased risk and the principal is typically assumed to be more able to shoulder this risk.
If the principal is a large record label or producer and the agent a session musician, it would seem reasonable to assume that the former is better able to tolerate risk arising from unsure future incomes. Hence, absent any incentive problems, the risk faced by the music performers should be minimised.
Moreover, reputational effects may be very powerful in ensuring a high-quality performance. From this perspective, it is difficult to identify the benefits for the performers from the EC Rental Directive.
The EC Rental Directive clearly increases the cost of managing a recording. Having to identify and keep track of a larger set of people entitled to a share of the rent generated adds considerable transaction costs to the disbursement of monies collected from recorded music. For standard transaction cost reasons the Directive strengthens the motivation for having large established traditional intermediaries who can spread the costs of the disbursements across a large number of recordings.
The rights can appear similar to the ones granted to right-holders of authorial works, but they remain somewhat different. As such, performers also have a reproduction right, distribution right, rental and lending right, and a right to make the work available to the public, but they also have the right to equitable remuneration. The previous section demonstrated that the evolution of music consumption strives towards more internationalisation.
Fully revised and updated, including the latest changes to Copyright law. By Ann Harrison. This essential and highly acclaimed guide, now updated and revised in its sixth edition, explains the business of the British music industry. Drawing on her extensive experience as a media lawyer, Ann Harrison offers a unique, expert opinion on the deals, the contracts and the business as a whole. She examines in detail the changing face of the music industry and provides absorbing and up-to-date case studies.
Fully revised and updated. The current types of record and publishing deals, and what you can expect to see in the contracts A guide to making a record, manufacture, distribution, branding, marketing, merchandising, sponsorship, band arrangements and touring The most up-to-date information on copyright law and related rights An in-depth look at digital downloads, streaming, online marketing and piracy Case studies illustrating key developments and legal jargon explained.Dont send mixed messages.
Services like Spotify tend to focus on maximising their growth and popularity at the expense of short-term profit. You pay them a small amount or a big amount if you really want the name and they stop using it, allowing you to carry on.
When youve decided who you want to work with, you should tell the others whove given up an hour or more of their valuable time that they are out of luck. At the very least they shouldnt own the song unless they offer you a proper publishing deal see Chapter 4. The review must be at least 50 characters long. A member will not be able to earn Qantas Points on the following products; magazines, eBooks, gift cards and postage.