NEWSWEEK POLSKA PDF
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Newsweek Polska is a Polish language weekly news magazine published in Poland as the . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version. explore how Newsweek's. Polish edition – Newsweek. Polska – worked with Insider to boost subscriptions and engagement. Case Study. The Challenge of. Authors: Mirosław Chmielewski CSsR. Title: Gender according Newsweek Polska. Media discourse about the notion of gender in Newsweek. Polska weekly in.
Do koszyka. Wprost Wydawca: Super Express Wydawca: Newsweek Polska Wydawca: Ringier Axel Springer Polska Sp. Tygodnik Angora Wydawca: Nowa Europa Wschodnia Wydawca: Kolegium Europy Wschodniej im. New Eastern Europe Wydawca: Tygodnik Powszechny Wydawca: Res Publica Nowa Wydawca: Fundacja Res Publica im. How is fake news pedaled? Does the mainstream media provide fake news?
What did Time magazine falsely report on president Trump? What is the basic tenet of beginning journalism? Is malicious hoax fake news? How serious is the threat of fake news to American democracy?
What are we [American public] — by fake news — kept from seeing or believing? Who is funding the non-profit First Draft that makes the anti-fake-news effort? Describe the problem presented in the article. Use the expressions listed below.
They will help you give structure to the text analysis.
Key words:. This is a per- sonal claim that to all intents and purposes can only be either true or fabricated.
Unless the then presidential candidate had previously suffered some sort of extreme visual impairment or cognitive dysfunction, such an anecdote is a clear case of improvised memory, blatantly indifferent to facts, serving a xenophobic agenda.
Yet, one could argue that had the Daily Mail been totally indifferent to the factual content of their article, they would not have bothered to is- How Useful is the Concept of Post-Truth in Analysing Genocide Denial?
One may, for good reason, consider this justification to be belated, superficial and disingenuous, but it is a justification nonetheless. On the other hand, if we consider the counterfactual condition what if this were a simple error? In one sense modern anti-Semitism is the template for what has become Post- Marius Gudonis Truth This latter point is a subtext of the entire book. Analysis of Online … of the Holocaust Other authors do not mention genocide de- nial as such, but do suggest that one important aspect of post-truth comprises a false or distorted view of the past.
A past without a Holocaust of 6 million deaths would certainly fit this description. However, I began this study with profound doubts as to the perti- nence of post-truth in the analysis of genocide denial. As I have argued earlier, the only clear new rhetorical element of post-truth is the total indifference towards truth, which is most obviously manifested by the absence of any form of rationalization or justification. Once a rhetor starts to justify their denial with an argument, no matter how flimsy or fallacious it is, they are, properly speaking, in an endeavour that is very much concerned with the truth and proving it to others.
Let us now turn to our empirical case: online debate on the Jedwabne massacre in The Jedwabne Massacre Before we take a look at some of the online comments posted on the Newsweek Polska forum from the perspective of post-truth, it will be helpful to recap on the current historical knowledge about the massa- cre. During this rule of terror some thousand inhabitants of all ethnicities were deported to Siberia and the number of deaths through execution or in custody is estimated at 55, Snyder, , p.
Nazi Germany, which had been occupying western Poland for Marius Gudonis the last two years, subsequently reneged on the agreement and invaded hitherto Soviet-occupied eastern Poland in what was called Operation Barbarossa on 22 June As Timothy Snyder convincingly out- lines in his book Black Earth, the Shoah reached its apex here because the pre-war state infrastructure was destroyed twice over Snyder , Chapter 5.
There is no evidence to suggest that Einsatzgruppen personnel took part in the murder of Jews in this area of Poland. The anarchical conditions produced a social vacuum, which when coupled with very high levels of popular Polish anti-Semitism — prewar support for National Democracy, the main nationalist anti-Se- mitic party, was high here — proved to be lethal to the approximately 17, local Jews.
Following the torture and murder of a group of Jews by Catholic Poles, in the limited presence of German officers, at least 40 Catholic Poles herded the or so remaining Jews into a barn and How Useful is the Concept of Post-Truth in Analysing Genocide Denial? I know this from my neighbours.
Neither did I witness our people ordering young Jewish girls to drown in the lake. Tears were flooding her face when she came to tell us about it. I saw how they were beaten with rubber straps. I saw how Jews were tortured in the synagogue and how mutilated Lewaniuk, who was still breathing, was buried alive… People herded them all to the barn.
They soaked all four 3 The precise number of Jewish victims at Jedwabne is very difficult if not impossible to establish.
A variety of documents put the Jewish population of Jedwabne before the war to about A contemporaneous Soviet document gives a somewhat unlikely figure of only Jews in Jedwabne in Population movements during the Soviet occupation and the fact that the exhumation performed in was only partial further complicate the matter.
Nevertheless, if the pre-massacre figure of Jewish inhabitants in Jedwabne amounts to between and , and the estimated total number of murders is between and , we can in any case be certain of an extremely large-scale massacre of Jews taking place in July Urynowicz Marius Gudonis sides of the building in paraffin.
You can imagine how accounts like this overwhelmed a public that was educated to believe in its own ethnic national martyrdom and he- roic wartime deeds.
Concerning the defensive or denialist Jedwabne discourse which predominated, it went through a number of phases, from outright ne- gation — i. Catholic Poles simply could not have done it — to reluctant acknowledgement accompanied by minimization and trivialization. Analysis of Online … a very useful tripartite typology of denial — i. To summarize these types, literal denial is outright negation, in- terpretive denial acknowledges the basic facts but interprets it in a way that maintains an unblemished virtuous national image, and implica- tory denial acknowledges both facts and mainstream historical inter- pretation but disavows the personal and ethical consequences that such knowledge would entail.
The concept of denial is therefore heuristic with a considerable weight of theoretical and empirical studies that have increased in volume with the passage of time. Can it help us un- derstand the phenomenon in ways which traditional theory on denial has not?
It made sense, therefore, to analyse Polish online comments on Jedwabne to see if something new had permeated the discourse compared to the print media of And if there was, my objective was to construct a preliminary typology of post-truth rhetoric. I chose to analyse the comment sections to four online articles that appeared in Newsweek Polska from 10 July to 8 February Employing an in- ductive discourse analysis, I hoped to read all the comments carefully, bearing in mind both the essential feature of post-truth identified above and traditional denialist discourse that has been already widely dis- cussed by numerous academics especially Israel Charny, Stanley Cohen and Michael Shafir.
The denier is not indifferent to the truth as is the purveyor of post-truth, and will go to great lengths to demonstrate a counter-truth backed up by lots of evidence, even if they are distorted, manipulated or otherwise falsified.
My reasons for choosing Newsweek Polska — a weekly current-af- fairs magazine, published in Poland since — is that it is a major news portal with a comparatively large number of articles on Jedwabne. I also wanted a portal that could attract a plurality of voices to see if any post-truth rhetoric was distributed across the board.
The earliest Jed- wabne-related article I could find on Newsweek Polska dates back to 28 March , but the number of comments generated by articles be- tween and is insignificant, ranging from 1 to 13 as of The number of comments for open access Newsweek Polska Jedwabne- related articles from Given the amplitude of the original media controversy over Jedwabne, the reader may be curious to know if such figures are small or large compared to other news stories or news portals.
While a study of the salience of Polish-Jewish topics in the media is beyond the scope of this article, the following comparative data may be of interest.
Freedom Games Program
Analysis of Online … take the widely reported interview with Minister of National Education, Anna Zalewska, who refused to acknowledge Polish responsibility for the Jedwabne massacre.
The Newsweek Polska article on this, dated Other articles on that same day gen- erated between 2 and comments. The same story about Zalewska produced the following number of comments in other popular news sites: onet , wyborcza.
One major preoccupation during the research was whether correct interpretation of online anonymous comments could be made without being certain of the authors' motivation. The first motivation would thus not be a case of post-truth, while the second would.
Thus, even if the comment was produced by a troll bot, such arti- ficially generated text is still meaningful in that it contributes to public discourse and can potentially influence others.
Further methodological notes are provided within the descriptions of the below findings for each set of comments. Dariusz Stola for making this very pertinent observation. A Newsweek Survey Szaniawski I am saying that the dramatic events in Jedwabne are controversial. Many historians por- tray a totally different picture.
I only considered the one essential characteristic of post-truth rhet- oric that I identified earlier: indifference to truth and facts. While it may seem like a relatively simple process — go through the list of comments and tick those that are indifferent to truth — it turned out to be more difficult than anticipated.
If the authors claiming genocide denial is a manifestation of post- truth are correct, we can hypothesize that post-truth rhetoric will be How Useful is the Concept of Post-Truth in Analysing Genocide Denial?
Analysis of Online … particularly high in the closed group and low in the open group. It seems simple enough, except, how do we ascertain that somebody is indiffer- ent to the truth? The trouble with these definitions, if used as a single criterion of post-truth, is that they produce a tautological conclusion when analys- ing cases of denial.
Post- truth in this simple sense of indifference is therefore of little analytical use to us. Here are two examples of denial where there is a discernable concern for the truth, which the reader may contrast with instances of post-truth rhetoric later in the article: This was no fault of ours. There is material evidence that it was the Ger- mans [ And is there even one piece of evidence that Poles murdered in Jedwabne? However, there is proof that the Germans did the killing.But it was only in , characterized by the rise of populist movements in many countries, which amongst others propelled Donald Trump into office and successfully produced a UK pro-Brexit referendum result, that the word entered the public con- sciousness and triggered much media debate.
To see faith. How- ever, a way out of this impasse is offered by the American philosopher Justin E.
The first motivation would thus not be a case of post-truth, while the second would. Dariusz Stola for making this very pertinent observation. Equally, such a case is demonstrated by a suggestion that x and not-x are true and that this state of affairs is of no great import.
However, I began this study with profound doubts as to the perti- nence of post-truth in the analysis of genocide denial.