PHARMACOGNOSY BY MUHAMMAD ALI PDF
Granzier and Richard Schulz. Mohammad A.M. Ali, Woo Jung Cho, Bryan Hudson, Zamaneh Kassiri, Henk. Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury. In the present edition my emphasis is on providing a consistently readable format- permitting clear understanding of up- to-date concise descriptions of various aspects of science of crude drugs. Recent information?s concerning cultivation chemical constituents and therapeutic. A Text Book of Pharmacognosy | 𝗥𝗲𝗾𝘂𝗲𝘀𝘁 𝗣𝗗𝗙 on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Saima Ali. Muhammad Rashid Khan. Muhammad Majid. Sonia Maryam.
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Several studies have been carried out in the past validating the antimicrobial and antiviral potential of O. Kubo et al. Pereira et al. Table 5: Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Olea europaea.
It was observed that olive brines have antimicrobial activity against lactic acid fermentation. A study was designed to investigate their antimicrobial activity. Among the identified compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol 39 showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity and its presence in olive brines also explained the growth inhibition of these bacteria during fermentation of olives [ ].
Ethanolic extract of the fresh leaves of O. Sudjana et al. The results showed that olive leaf extract was only active against Campylobacter jejuni, Helicobacter pylori, and Staphylococcus aureus showing that it is not a broad spectrum antimicrobial agent [ ]. The extracts showed an unusual combined antibacterial and antifungal activity at low concentrations against the stated species which suggest their potential as nutraceuticals [ ]. The olive leaf extracts exhibited relatively high antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa using disc diffusion method [ ].
The in vitro antimicrobial activity of aqueous, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl alcohol extracts of olive leaves was investigated against a number of microorganisms.
The aqueous extract of olive leaves had no antibacterial effect against the test microorganisms, while acetone extract inhibited several microorganisms including Salmonella enteritidis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Streptococcus thermophiles, Enterococcus faecalis, and Lactobacillus bulgaricus [ ]. Lee and B. Lee studied the combined effect of olive leaf phenolics and the isolated compounds against several microbial strains.
The results indicated the active components as oleuropein 1 and caffeic acid and it was concluded that the combined olive phenolics have a significantly higher antimicrobial effect than the isolated phenolics [ ]. Oleuropein was found the most effective compound while syringic acid was found inactive.
Aqueous extract was inactive against Bacillus cereus while acetone extract was found active [ , ].
Volatile fractions from fresh and dried leaves of three Tunisian olive cultivators were subjected to GC-MS analysis and their antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated. All the fractions showed significant antibacterial and antifungal activities, although there were differences in the responses of different cultivators to the microorganisms because of variability of the composition [ ]. Another study was designed to investigate the effects of alcoholic extract of olives on the bacterial communication system, expressed as quorum sensing activity.
The extract was tested for the stated activity by Chromobacterium violaceum assay using the agar cup diffusion method. The extract of olives was not found active for antiquorum sensing activity [ ].
The bactericidal and fungicidal activities of salt-free table olive solutions were evaluated against several phytopathogenic microorganisms [ ]. The results demonstrated that the storage solutions of black ripe olives showed evident antibacterial activity against species of Erwinia, Clavibacter, Agrobacterium, and Pseudomonas while washing waters from Spanish-style green olives were not so effective.
These solutions also showed fungicidal activity against species of Phytophthora, Colletotrichum, Alternaria, Botrytis, and Pestalotiopsis.
These activities were related to the glutaraldehyde like compounds such as the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid in these solutions.
These findings suggested that olive waste waters may be used in agriculture for pests management [ ]. Antifungal activities of aqueous, acetone, ethyl acetate, and methanolic extracts of olive leaves were investigated on 30 different fungal strains using disc diffusion method.
The aqueous extract showed the highest activity and was active against 10 fungal strains. When sensitivity was compared, Alternaria parasiticus was the most resistant strain while Alternaria wentii was the most sensitive one [ ]. A study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activity of some aliphatic aldehydes [hexanal, nonanal, E hexenal, E heptenal, E octenal, E nonenal] from olive fruit against various strains of Trichophyton mentagrophytes, Microsporum canis, and Candida spp.
The aldehydes showed a broad spectrum activity and inhibited all the tested strains except Candida spp.
E octenal and E nonenal inhibited the elastase activity in a concentration dependent fashion [ ]. A similar type of study has shown that volatiles from Tunisian olive cultivars Chemlali and Neb Jmel were found active against a number of bacteria and fungi [ ].
Maslinic acid , a pentacyclic triterpenoid obtained from the pressed fruits of olives, has been studied against tachyzoites of Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite when treated with maslinic acid showed inhibition of some of the proteases in a dose-dependent manner. This protease activity is required by the parasite for cell invasion.
Hence, maslinic acid can be a good agent to inhibit this parasite [ ]. Micol et al. Both of these showed good activity against VHSV before infection as well as in postinfection treatment. Both the extracts were safe on health and environment so these may be used as promising natural antiviral agents [ ].
Textbook of Pharmacognosy, 2e
Antioxidant Activities Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are essential for energy supply, chemical signaling, detoxification, and immune function and are continuously produced in the human body and their amount is carefully controlled under the action of endogenous enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase. With an overproduction of these reactive species, an exposure to external oxidant substances, or a failure in the defense mechanisms, damage to valuable biomolecules DNA, lipids, proteins may occur [ 26 ].
This damage has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, and other chronic diseases. Hence, antioxidants are required to prevent from oxidative damage and chronic diseases [ ]. Antioxidant activities of O. Le Tutour and Guedon investigated the antioxidant activity of oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol from the leaves of O.
Oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol showed high antioxidant activity while tyrosol showed neither antioxidant nor prooxidant activity [ ].
Oleuropein was also evaluated for its antioxidant activity in vitro using chemiluminescence assay and was found to have remarkable antioxidant activity [ ]. Later on Fogliano et al. In another study, antioxidant activity of different phenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of O. These compounds included oleuropein, verbascoside, luteolinglucoside, apigeninglucoside, diosmetinglucoside, luteolin, diosmetin, rutin, catechin, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillin, vanillic acid, and caffeic acid.
Among these, the flavonoids rutin, luteolin, and catechin showed the highest activity against ABTS radicals [ ]. Briante et al.
To confirm the transformation, the resulting extracts were evaluated for their antioxidant activities in comparison with the original olive leaves extract.
The resulting eluates showed a higher antioxidant activity than their extract of origin due to the presence of a higher concentration of simple biophenols [ ].
A similar kind of comparative study was performed between extra virgin olive oils EVOOs of different degrees of degradation. Ranalli et al. The results showed that many phenolics present in olive oil mill waste water have good antioxidizing capacities and could replace some less safe synthetic antioxidants used to preserve food items industrially [ ].
The effect of maslinic acid , obtained from olive pomace, on the vulnerability of plasma membrane to lipid peroxidation has been investigated both in vitro and in vivo in rats. It was concluded that maslinic acid may offer some resistance to oxidative stress in animals [ ]. LC-MS screening of freeze-dried olives from Italian cultivators was performed along with their antioxidant profile showing differences in antioxidant behavior of olives of different cultivators [ ].
In a similar study, the phenolic components of O. Antioxidant activities of different parts of O. These include olive leaves infusion [ ], ethanolic extract of olive leaves [ , ], olive fruit and leaves [ , ], aqueous olive leaf extract [ , ], and olives from Dhokar olive cultivators [ ]. All the extracts exhibited very good antioxidant activities. All the extracts showed very good radical scavenging activities which proved them to be a healthy diet supplement [ , ]. The results indicated that EVOOs possess greater antioxidant potential than pure olive oils [ ].
Conde et al.
Syringol and syringaldehyde were among the most abundant volatile compounds and oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol, syringaldehyde, and tyrosol were the most abundant phenolics identified by HPLC.
The extracts showed a promising antioxidant activity which was hardly affected by the temperature of the treatment [ ]. Olive trees in Portugal were sprayed with different copper formulations in order to protect the trees from different fungal diseases. Later on the leaves of those trees were analyzed for their copper content by atomic absorption spectrometry.
It was observed that the samples with more copper content have a decreased level of phenolic compounds and in turn less radical scavenging capacity [ ]. Four major phenolic compounds present in olive oil, namely, hydroxytyrosol 84 , oleuropein 1 , hydroxytyrosol-elenolate 14 , and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylethanol-elenolic acid dialdehyde 39 , were studied for their protective effect on RBCs against oxidative damage. All four compounds significantly showed the protective effect for RBCs from oxidative damage in a dose-dependent manner [ ].
Abaza et al. Results revealed that methanol is recommended for the extracts with high level of flavonoids and antioxidant activities [ ]. The protective effects of olive leaf extract on genotoxicity and oxidative damage in cultured human blood cells are also studied.
The olive leaf extract at all doses did not induce any significant changes in genotoxicity; however, it increased total antioxidant capacity in plasma in vitro. The effect of ripening on the antioxidant activities of the olive pericarp was examined in eleven different olive cultivars grown in southern Italy. The geranylgeranyl reductase transcript levels along with the biophenols and tocopherols were studied and it was observed that an inverse relation exists between them.
At ripening stages of pericarp, the tocopherol levels increased gradually while biophenolic levels decreased significantly confirming the significant properties of antioxidants in the ripe olive drupes, hence establishing their nutritional value [ ].
Antioxidant properties of phenolic compounds of olive fruits pulp from chamlal variety were evaluated in comparison with vitamin C. Hydrogen peroxide H2O2 scavenging and iron reduction tests were performed to determine the antioxidant activities. All the tested substances exhibited a strong reducing power. The protective effect of the extracts against lipids and proteins peroxidation was also studied.
The olive pulp showed a significant activity for the protection of lipids peroxidation [ ]. Petridis et al. The infusions of leaves of O. The extracts of olive leaves have also been found to be good antioxidants against the oxidation of soybean oil under microwave heating.
Microwave heating causes severe nutritional and quality losses and increased the peroxide values. Olive leaves extracts made availability of vitamin E in the test samples ensuring protection against formation of peroxides [ ]. Machado et al.
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They found that the rain-fed olive trees during the maturation of their fruits yielded in higher biophenolic content and PAL activity than the irrigated olive trees [ ]. An experiment was designed to study the effect of dietary olive leaves on lipid and protein oxidation of refrigerated stored n-3 fatty acids-enriched pork.
It was observed that the supplementation of meat with olive leaves decreased lipid oxidation but exerted no effect on protein oxidation in both raw and cooked meat [ ].
The hydroxyl-isochromans 81 and 82 were investigated for their antioxidant power and antiplatelet activity.
Pharmacognosy- Pharmacognosy And Phytochemistry, Volume 1
The results suggested them as very good antioxidants and inhibitors of platelet aggregation and thromboxane release, so the use of olive oil can reduce the risk of vascular diseases [ ]. Enzyme Inhibition Activities The use of olive in folk medicine to treat the inhibition of enzymes involved in various ailments is old. In Mediterranean folk medicine, the preparation of olive leaf has been used as a common tonic for gout [ ].
Flemmig et al. Allopurinol was used as a reference drug in this study. Olive leaf extract as well as several of its phenolics showed xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity.
Water extract of the fresh terminal branches of O. Due to significant activity, a bioguided isolation was performed to isolate the main component responsible for the ACE inhibition which was oleacein 39 while the other isolates did not show ACE inhibitory activity [ 96 ].
These aldehydes were proved to be noncompetitive inhibitors of tyrosinase and showed low toxicity on brine shrimp test [ ]. Antihypertensive and Cardioprotective Activities Hypertension is the cause of heart diseases and it may cause stroke of the arteries, peripheral arterial diseases, and chronic kidney diseases if not treated. Many natural products have been found effective against hypertension. The cardiotonic effects of three triterpenoids, namely, uvaol , ursolic acid , and oleanolic acid isolated from the leaves of O.
Oleanolic acid and uvaol showed a significant, dose-response vasodepressor effect; therefore, olive oil was suggested as a natural and cheap source of controlling hypertension [ ].
A random parallel clinical trial was conducted on the patients of stage-1 hypertension to evaluate the antihypertensive effects of olive leaf extract in comparison with the reference drug Captopril. Olive leaf extract was administered at a dose of mg twice a day while the control group was treated with 25 mg Captopril twice a day until 8 weeks.
All the patients showed a significant decrease in their systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure after treatment and the patients treated with olive leaf extract showed better results than Captopril [ ]. In another study, the ethanolic or chloroform extract of olive leaves showed a slow decrease in blood pressure in moderate hypertension after prolonged use [ ].
It was observed that infusion of the dried olive leaves upon intravenous administration to mice remained ineffective against normal blood pressure but had a decreasing effect in rennin and norepinephrine induced hypertension [ ].
The triterpenoids isolated from the leaves of O. The results showed that main active constituents were oleanolic acid and ursolic acid which prevented the hypertension and atherosclerosis and also improved the insulin resistance of the test rats [ ].
A clinical trial of aqueous extract of olive leaves was carried out on hypertensive patients. Patients were treated with 1. A significant decrease in their blood pressure was noticed after treatment without any side effects [ ]. In another study, rats were treated for 6 weeks with nitro-L-arginine methyl ester to create hypertension in them.
An open study was conducted in Switzerland which included 40 borderline hypertensive monozygotic twins. The treatment was carried out for 8 weeks. As a result it was noticed that blood pressure was reduced in all persons with more significant decrease in those treated with high dose. It was also noticed that cholesterol levels also decreased in all the treatments in a dose-dependent manner [ ].
OLE caused a decrease in systolic left ventricular pressure and heart rate as well as an increase in relative coronary flow in a concentration dependent fashion. Most of the diagrams have been improved in their lay-out designs. The practical application of crude drugs is stressed throughout the book. Many of the simple illustrations have been re-drawn to improve accuracy and understanding.
A Text Book of Pharmacognosy I wish to thank my publisher, typists and artists for their untiring help. Many of my students and colleagues, present and past, have contributed useful suggestions and I am grateful to them. To our library staff thanks are due for their continued help in procuring much needed reference material. I express my deep gratitude to the authors of monographs of various pharmacopoeias, reports of the National Institute of Science Communication, New Delhi and of the Herbal Drugs and Phytopharmaceutjcajs from where I have gained knowledge for compiling the book.
I have made every effort to avoid printing errors. But some of them may creep in present edition. I shall be obliged if the errors are brought to my notice.
Extensive tables summarizing drug jnformations may provide more knowledge of the subject. A new chapter entitled Variability in Drug Activity is the additional attraction. Jnclusion of questions at the end of each chapter will strengthen the interest of the readers.
Every chapter has been carefully updated and revised. Most of the diagrams have been improved in their lay-out designs. The practical application of crude drugs is stressed throughout the book. Many of the simple illustrations have been re-drawn to improve accuracy and understanding. Visit Seller's Storefront. Shipping costs are based on books weighing 2. If your book order is heavy or oversized, we may contact you to let you know extra shipping is required.
List this Seller's Books. Payment Methods accepted by seller. BookVistas Address: November 24, Stock Image. ISBN Aqueous extract was inactive against Bacillus cereus while acetone extract was found active [ , ].
Regulations, 1991 implemented In the year 1993
V-Pad for snare. FM Inclusion of questions at the end of each chapter will strengthen the interest of the readers. DEA Form Later on Fogliano et al.
Reports and Disclousers. The practical application of crude drugs is stressed throughout the book. Also for:. A new chapter entitled Variability in Drug Activity is the additional attraction.
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