PLANT GENETICS PDF
and Genetics of Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences” .. Institute of Genetics and Plant Experimental biology patentpdf). Principles of plant genetics and breeding / George Acquaah. — 2nd ed. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN (cloth). FAO - Plant breeding and related biotechnology capacity survey status. 7 . referred to as 'plant genetic resources for food and agriculture,' or PGRFA (see FAO.
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PDF | The United States and the world face serious societal challenges in the Historically, advances in plant genetics have provided new. Mendelian Genetics and Biotechnology Summary. Plant Reproductive Biology. History of Research in Plant Reproduction. A paper in the series on. The Need for Agricultural Innovation to. Sustainably Feed the World by Plant Breeding and Genetics. 1 Italicized.
Guide for Reviewers Reviewers Login. Executive Editor: Current issue Original Paper. Genetic variability in quantitative traits of field pea Pisum sativum L. Czech J. Plant Breed.
BioMed Research International
Identification of three new resources of resistance to Fusarium head blight in wheat. Proposal of updated XYZ system for the production of hybrid wheat seed. The species of Tripsacum, yet more distant relatives to maize, also offer promising potential.
The genus consists of a number of species with varying levels of ploidy and a base chromosome number of The species, mostly perennials, contain a number of interesting genes; however, only a few studies have referred to the possible use of Tripsacum segments for maize.
Benefits have been demonstrated for increased yield 34 and for disease resistance [an Ht gene derived from Tripsacum floridanum 35 ].
The characteristic of apomixis—asexual reproduction of a plant through the seed—is found in many of the polyploid species of Tripsacum 36 and may be of great import to the maize-growing world. In developing countries, many farmers cannot take advantage of hybrid technology that would increase their yields because high-quality hybrid seed is either unavailable or unaffordable.
If hybrid seed could be produced via apomictic hybrids, public and private sector seed companies could produce larger quantities of high quality seed, at lower cost, to meet the new demand. Farmers would have the opportunity to recycle high-quality seed from generation to generation, providing another option for meeting an often unpredictable planting cycle.
The introduction of hybrid technology to these countries would undoubtedly boost yields, both through heterosis and by providing effective options for introducing resistances and tolerances. In developed countries, the private sector has dominated the seed industry; hybrids have played an important and often controversial role.
Apomictic seed would not be a great benefit to the industries as a commercial product, but it could be important in the production of hybrid seed. Much work remains before we witness the first apomictic diploid maize plant; however, the work of several research groups, at various locations around the world, in maize and other cereals makes us optimistic that this will be achieved soon.
The potential impact on maize agriculture would be tremendous, and efforts must continue to ensure that this technology will be available to all farmers, particularly those in developing countries. Apomixis is not the only trait of importance in Tripsacum.
In Africa, for example, the parasitic weed Striga spp. Little resistance has been found within maize, even following extensive testing of a wide collection of exotic sources. Some resistance has been found in certain teosinte species and accessions. Recent efforts in screening a range of Tripsacum species have identified several promising accessions with near immunity to Striga infestation.
Some of these accessions are within the diploid species and, thus, are more amenable to genetic investigation and introgression into maize.
Molecular linkage maps of the genes are being developed with the ultimate aim of transferring the resistance to local maize varieties. Undoubtedly, teosinte and Tripsacum represent significant untapped genetic resources for the improvement of maize. Through the application of molecular techniques, the genomes of these species will be opened for further investigation and, ultimately, for the isolation of critical genes, which can be transferred to other crop plant species.
Intellectual Property Rights Issues Related to the Utilization of Genetic Resources During the past several years, there has been an increasing trend toward the application of intellectual property rights IPR to agricultural products, even plant varieties.
This is in great contrast to the s and s, when such protection was considered a detriment to global progress in plant improvement. In , the Convention on Biological Diversity officially recognized the sovereign rights of individual nations over biological diversity and the resources within their territories.
The Treaty has been ratified by most developing countries and many developed countries but has yet to be ratified by the U. These agreements describe the roles and responsibilities of the centers as trustees and include articles that state: i The Center shall hold the designated germplasm in trust for the benefit of the international community, in particular, developing countries; ii neither the Center, or any recipient, will seek IPR protection over the designated germplasm or related information; and iii the Center will undertake to make samples of the designated germplasm and related information available directly to users for the purpose of scientific research, plant breeding, or genetic resource conservation without restriction.
These are under study, and it is expected that, following the next round of negotiations, some, if not all, of these issues will be clarified. What effects these agreements will have on the use of genetic resources is unclear. The interpretation of related information, in particular, will have implications for IPR options. If the interpretation restricts IPR over materials such as genes obtained from genetic resources held in trust, these important resources will continue to be incorporated in conventional ways, but the application of biotechnology may be more limited.
Molecular Approaches to Utilization of Genetic Resources There is a multitude of examples illustrating the use of genetic resources to improve modern plant varieties, but one can readily posit that biotechnology could substantially enhance this use.
Molecular genetics now allows the routine genetic analysis of nearly any characteristic of interest. As these traits are better understood, the underlying genes can be isolated and used to identify corresponding genes in a wide range of genetic resources. Molecular genetics has already had a tremendous impacts on plant breeding. Progress in the development of new PCR-based marker systems amplified fragment length polymorphisms and microsatellites has opened the vast majority of plant genomes to investigation.
Linkage maps for many species have been developed and often have been combined with suitable phenotypic data to identify genomic regions containing the genes coding for specific traits of interest.
Many of these regions have been further characterized e.
Undoubtedly, these efforts will continue and will even be enhanced by newer molecular techniques such as DNA arrays 39 and automation. DNA markers also have been used extensively to characterize germplasm, a process popularly known as fingerprinting, to evaluate the genetic relationships among accessions genetic diversity and provide important information in the areas of ecology, population genetics, and evolution.
Within wheat, several studies have reported the application of molecular markers within Asiatic wheat landraces Molecular marker technology has advanced our understanding of genetic resources more than any other type of genetic data.
A major hurdle, however, must be overcome soon: how to store, access, and analyze the vast amounts of data that will be produced by using molecular markers. Databases, such as the International Crop Information System, are under development to store pedigree and performance information for most of the crop species within the CGIAR.
Herbicide resistance can be engineered into crops by expressing a version of target site protein that is not inhibited by the herbicide.
This is the method used to produce glyphosate resistant crop plants See Glyphosate Genetic modification can further increase yields by increasing stress tolerance to a given environment. Stresses such as temperature variation, are signalled to the plant via a cascade of signalling molecules which will activate a Transcription factor to regulate Gene expression. Overexpression of particular genes involved in cold acclimation has been shown to become more resistant to freezing, which is one common cause of yield loss  Genetic modification of plants that can produce pharmaceuticals and industrial chemicals , sometimes called pharming , is a rather radical new area of plant breeding.
The question of whether breeding can have a negative effect on nutritional value is central in this respect. Although relatively little direct research in this area has been done, there are scientific indications that, by favoring certain aspects of a plant's development, other aspects may be retarded.
Plant genetics: a decade of integration
Reductions in calcium , phosphorus , iron and ascorbic acid were also found. The study, conducted at the Biochemical Institute, University of Texas at Austin , concluded in summary: "We suggest that any real declines are generally most easily explained by changes in cultivated varieties between and , in which there may be trade-offs between yield and nutrient content. Such concerns are not new to plant breeding. Most countries have regulatory processes in place to help ensure that new crop varieties entering the marketplace are both safe and meet farmers' needs.
Examples include variety registration, seed schemes, regulatory authorizations for GM plants, etc. Plant breeders' rights is also a major and controversial issue. Today, production of new varieties is dominated by commercial plant breeders, who seek to protect their work and collect royalties through national and international agreements based in intellectual property rights.
The range of related issues is complex. In the simplest terms, critics of the increasingly restrictive regulations argue that, through a combination of technical and economic pressures, commercial breeders are reducing biodiversity and significantly constraining individuals such as farmers from developing and trading seed on a regional level.
Some plants are propagated by asexual means while others are propagated by seeds. Seed propagated cultivars require specific control over seed source and production procedures to maintain the integrity of the plant breeds results.Open Access Policy This journal provides immediate open access to its content on the principle that making research freely available to the public supports a greater global exchange of knowledge.
Agronomic crops will continue to be attacked by diverse pests and pathogens. Such concerns are not new to plant breeding. Many of these regions have been further characterized e. Biometrics 20, — Google Scholar Finney, D.
Seed propagated cultivars require specific control over seed source and production procedures to maintain the integrity of the plant breeds results. Yields of the major cereal crops rice, wheat, and maize have increased steadily over the past years, although the rate of these yield increases appears to have slowed. The range of related issues is complex.