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The book Thermal Power Plants - Advanced Applications introduces analysis of plant performance, energy efficiency, combustion issues, heat transfer. Browse and Download Power Plant Engineering books of various titles, written by many authors and published by a number of publications for free in PDF. In this Power Plant Books section you will find many free Handbooks guides and training material related to Thermal power plants, Handbook for Cogeneration and Combined Cycle Power Plants Practical Electric Motor Handbook pdf.
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In this case the combustion takes place in a boiler where the heat generated by the combustion is used to generate steam. There is also the heat produced in a nuclear reactor and transferred to steam generators through pressurized water. Two variations of the Rankine Cycle are; the Kalina Cycle where the working fluid is a mixture of water and ammonia and the Organic Rankine Cycle where some special organic fluid is specified to use waste heat.
Thermal Power Plant Performance Analysis
There are other examples of external combustion engines such as the Stirling and Ericsson cycles. In the internal combustion engines, called open cycles, the air is the working fluid at least until it mixes with the fuel and undergoes the combustion. The main open cycles used in power plants are the Brayton cycle gas turbines , Diesel and Otto cycles reciprocating motors.
This open configuration is based on a different thermodynamic concept. In the closed system there is a unique working fluid that exchange only heat and mechanical work with the exterior.
In the open configuration at its turn, there is an exchange of mechanical work, an inflow of air and fuel and an outflow of gases products of the combustion. Although there is no heat input, we may still consider this internal combustion engine, a thermal engine. The combustion process can be seen as a transformation of internal chemical energy into internal thermal energy, in the same way a heat exchanger would do.
Regarding the heat outflow, in the Diesel and Otto engines a significant amount of heat is rejected to a cooling water, that circulates inside the engine, mainly to maintain the mechanical integrity of engine parts. Analysis of Thermal Plants Configuration 45 Fig. Due the objective of this analysis, restricted to industrial power plants, we shall discuss the main components equipments related to this application of the Rankine cycle. Usually, those boilers are water tube boilers, i.
One of the reasons is a substantial increase in the heat exchange area this will helps to control the irreversibility in the heat transfer as mentioned before. Those boilers are called Supercritical Boilers although the last noun might be considered inappropriate due the fact that above the critical pressure there is no boiling.
One important distinction among several industrial power boiler configurations is whether exists or not a separation point between the region where the vapor is produced and the other, where the steam is just superheated. The boilers which the separation point does not exist are called Once-Through Steam Generators OTSG in contrast with boilers that have a drum to separate the liquid water and steam.
Figure 4 illustrates this last configuration.
The Rankine Cycle demands for high saturation temperatures for the working fluid when it crosses the steam generators.
This is especially true for those which the heat source consist of the burning of fossil fuels. This need was always difficult to be fulfilled using drums. This boiler component is a pressure vessel subjected to strong thermal and mechanical loads. Figure 5 shows this critical component. Since the beginning of the boiler industry an alternative to this conception was sought and the OTSGs were developed in this context.
In those boilers we may say, that during normal operation water molecule does not pass twice for any cross section of the water tubes or there is no water recirculation. The sketch in Fig. The separator above is designed to remove any moisture present in steam especially in the startup and partial load operations. All supercritical steam generators have this once-through design.
Analysis of Thermal Plants Configuration 47 Fig. There, the liquid water prior entering in the evaporator boiling region is preheated using the hot gases after they leave the superheater.
The temperature difference of the liquid water leaving the condenser and the temperature of the flame inside the boiler is the greater possible difference occurring in the cycle.
It is then necessary to reduce this difference in order to minimize the irreversibility that would occur if the liquid water enters in the boiler at such low temperature. It is clear that this modification represent an increase in capital costs but the operational cost reduction pays back, even if it is used a larger number of preheaters.
The Economizer is a steam generator internal and the Fig. Another possibility to increase the boiler efficiency is the insertion of a Reheat section.
Looking to this modification from the thermodynamic second law point of view, it will control the irreversibility due to heat transfer. This will be achieved with a smaller temperature difference in the Economizer, between the liquid water and the flue gases.
And the thermal energy increase in the reheat section will be internalized in the cycle to be later transformed in useful work at the turbine shaft. The sketch bellow shows how the search for higher efficiency and less exergy destruction results in some constrains to the steam turbine design Fig.
Enthalpy is a function of pressure and temperature for superheated steam, in the Mollier diagram, presented in Fig. Inside the turbine, enthalpy is converted in kinetic energy through stationary nozzles or by the decrease in the flow cross-sectional area during the flow around the moving blades. The high speed of the steam, after passing through the nozzles, or the high momentum obtained, will produce an impulsive force on the blade and consequently a torque on the turbine wheel.
In this kind of configuration, the impulse stage, the pressure remains constant at least theoretically. Figure 11 shows a Curtis-Rateau turbine. Notice, that in all stages, when the steam flows through the moving blades, the pressure stays constant. This turbine has only impulse blading. In this case we will have a reaction blade, where the expansion occurs simultaneously to the torque production.
Figure 12 shows a turbine, Curtis-Parson, with an impulse stage following the reaction stages. Steam turbines that produce more than 60 MW usually have more than one cylinder. Figure 13 illustrates those turbines, called compound. Those diagrams do not show the extraction nozzles but they are present in all configurations and they are usually located in the high pressure turbine.
And in power plants the steam flow rate are usually high, this combination leads to a large equipment which the cold fluid is water in most cases. Analysis of Thermal Plants Configuration 51 Fig. Although small the cylindrical condenser bellow shows the main parts of a condenser operating in a power plant. One important feature is the air cooler.
It is connected with the vent air offtake and it is just a fraction of the tube bundle, with a small tube pitch and located in a position that facilitates the non-condensable air to leave the condenser and be discarded with the help of a steam ejector. It is included in all installations the deaerator, an equipment especially designed to remove the air from the water.
Nevertheless, some air remains in a mixture with the liquid water or steam. And is inside the condenser where it separates from the steam and tends to accumulate there.
Even in small quantities, air reduces substantially the heat transfer coefficient and this can impair the condensation around the tube bundle, causing a sudden increase in the turbine back pressure. The cooling water can be obtained from rivers, sea or recirculated water using cooling towers. The use of cooling towers reduces the water cost but it brings high capital and operational costs.
The photo presented in Fig. The main heat transfer mechanism in cooling towers is the diffusion mechanism. Figure 16 shows a physical model for the energy exchange of the liquid water and the humid air.
When the water temperature is equal, in some point, to the humid air temperature, no convection heat transfer will take place. But energy is still removed from the liquid water by the diffusion of water vapor into the humid air. The indirect measure of this concentration is the thermodynamic saturation temperature which is approximated by the wet bulb temperature. This last temperature at the tower inlet is the ultimate limit for the cooling water. As the wet bulb temperature is usually less than dry bulb temperature the use of a cooling tower could represent an increase of the plant efficiency as the Eq.
Figure 17 illustrates this type of condenser, 4 The Brayton Cycle The Brayton cycle is the thermodynamic model for the gas turbine cycle.
The open configuration shown in Fig. Analysis of Thermal Plants Configuration 55 Fig. Although the combustion reaction has its own irreversibility, we can imagine this cycle capable to operate with higher temperatures than the Rankine cycle. There is a potential better use of the fuel energy than we saw before. But a drawback is the use of a compressor. This component demands a high percentage of the mechanical energy produced by the gas turbine.
The aero derivative gas turbines are more flexible and easier to operate than the industrial ones. The first cycle modification is the introduction of a regenerator heat exchanger, as shown in Fig. With this heat exchanger the pressure ratio could be lower reducing the compressor work.
There is however, a limitation, this a gas versus gas heat exchanger, so in order to recuperate large amounts of energy, the size and the pressure drop tend to be unacceptable beyond certain power.
Another mechanism to reduce the compressor work is to cool the air while being compressed. An intercooler could do this job but this will increase the installation cost significantly. The water injection between the low and high pressure stages will also cool the air reducing the power required by the compressor.
There is also a possibility of a vapor injection before the combustor.The main open cycles used in power plants are the Brayton cycle gas turbines , Diesel and Otto cycles reciprocating motors.
Through a combination of solar PV panels, high efficiency standards in all buildings, and a bio-fueled district heating grid, many houses in Vauban produce more electricity than they consume. Usually, the superheater is an additional piece of equipment integrated to the steam generator. In a regenerative cycle, the vapor does not expand isentropically in the turbine, but as it expands it exchanges heat with the compressed liquid that travels in a Fundamentals of Thermodynamics Applied to Thermal Power Plants 33 Fig.
Er ist Mitglied von nationalen und internationalen Normungsausschussen und Projektgruppen, u. Brum Fig. Your Comments About This Post.