THE CHERRY ORCHARD BY ANTON CHEKHOV PDF
The Cherry Orchard, by Anton Chekhov. Translated from the Russian by Maria Amadei Ashot. © Copyright All rights reserved. 1. Anton. ADELAIDE UNIVERSITY. THEATRE GUILD. THE CHERRY ORCHARD. BY. ANTON CHEKHOV. AT THE HUT. Monday, May 5th. Tuesday, May 6th. Wednesday. The Cherry Orchard A Comedy in Four Acts. Anton Chekhov The text is from Plays by Anton Tchekoff, second series, translated with an introduction by Julius .
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Glencoe Literature Classics CD-ROM. Author: Anton Chekhov. (). Title : The Cherry Orchard. Year: Genre: Drama. Big Idea: Disillusionment and. THE. CHERRY. ORCHARD by Anton Chekhov translation by. Jean-Claude van Itallie directed by. STEPHEN HEATLEY set design by. CHRISTINA POMANSKI. The Cherry Orchard, Anton Chekhov, complete HTML play, It is May. The cherry-trees are in flower but it is chilly in the garden. There is an early frost.
We recommend it to all aspiring writers, actors, and people who enjoy reading dramas. To all the rest, we recommend seeing the actual play when it is on repertoire at your local theaters. He is considered as one of the best short-fiction writers of all times. He is widely known as the father of the short story, and his writings has played a large role in shaping modernism.
It begins on an early May morning when flowers are blooming even though the weather outside is cold. The center of the story is the family of one estate owner, Renevsky, who this very morning is visited by Lopakhin.
Ranevsky is coming back from Paris, where he has been for the past five years, bringing his daughter Anya with him, her governess Charlotte, and Yasha, a young servant who is accompanying her whenever she travels.
On the station, she is greeted by her brother Leonid Gayev, an old manservant called Firs, and her adopted daughter Varya. They come back with him to the estate. Ranevsky is happy to be home, and his daughter Anya starts telling her daughter how Paris was — she was surprised by the poverty in which her mother lived, and her bad spending habits. To that, her daughter Varya reveals to her that the family estate, the house with the cherry orchard, will be sold at an auction because of their mounting debts.
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Lopakhin also brings up the issue of the auction, and proposes a good solution, according to him; he tells Ranevsky to divide the land into parcels, build cottages on them and lease them to people who want to hold a cottage during the summer, a trend which is increasing lately. However, Lopakhin does not think there is a way to save the orchard, except to buy the house themselves, so he offers Ranevsky a loan if he changes his mind about the sale. In fact, that was one of the reasons he decided to leave the country in the first place.
When Lopakhin leaves, Gayev offers three alternatives to save the orchard: the first one is a financial scheme using his connections he has a banker friend , the second one is for Ranevsky to borrow money from Lopakhin, and finally asking for help from a wealthy aunt living in Yaroslavl.
The second act revolves around the reluctance of the family members to sell the cherry orchard. In the meantime, Ranevsky reveals that there is a lover in Paris, waiting, but who before her return to her hometown left her after robbing her. Chekhov: The Cherry Orchard. Plays in Production Series. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, True to the spirit of the series to which he contributes, James N.
Loehlin provides a chronological study of the production history of one of the world's great modern dramas, Anton Chekhov's The Cherry Orchard. Beginning with the premiere, directed by Konstantin Stanislavsky at the Moscow Art Theatre in , Loehlin traverses more than one-hundred years of notable productions in many different interpretive and visual styles, from leading directors and producers as varied as the U.
By the end of Loehlin's book, the reader has encountered a world of productions, from naturalist to minimalist and from those anchored in Russian culture to those conceived as universally human.
In this grand international tour, Loehlin has, of course, benefited much from Laurence Senelick's exhaustive guide to the stage history of all Chekhov's plays, The Chekhov Theatre Cambridge University Press, Loehlin rightly begins with the play. When they are alone, Dunyasha begins to worry, apparently for the first time, that Yephikodov might actually be contemplating suicide.
Yasha responds by kissing her and calling her a "tasty little morsel," just as he did when they first met. Dunyasha confesses her love to Yasha. She says that he is "so educated, and can talk about anything". Yasha reacts disinterestedly. He admits that what she says about his education is true. He also says that, according to him, it is sinful for a woman to be in love with a man. When he hears Ranevsky and the others approaching, he tells her to leave and pretend that she has been bathing down by the river, so that they won't be seen together.
He says that he couldn't bear people thinking that they were. She complies, choking on his cigar smoke as she leaves. Initially, we might wish to dismiss the scene with the four young servants as simple comic relief.
Chekhov definitely changes the tone of the play somewhat from the more serious discussion that ended the last act toward a more comedic voice.
But he is also commenting on memory, about nature, and about drama itself in this presentation of a pastoral idyll, full of poplar and cherry trees. But the idyll is not wholly interrupted: the telegraph poles challenge and disrupt this picture of things, and Charlotte, as a young woman, wears a man's hat and carries a man's weapon.
She is a woman who cannot remember whether her mother and father were married, where she came from or who she is.
Charlotte's lack of memory constitutes a lack of identity, and this linkage of memory and identity will prove important later on.
The Cherry Orchard PDF Summary
Yephikodov also has something of an identity crisis; he self-consciously he wishes to be considered a Romantic, yet is extremely unconvincing in the role, to such an extent that it is funny.
His songs are mournful, yet to Charlotte they sound like "hyenas"; he claims to contemplate suicide, even bringing out his revolver, but in his hands the weapon is totally unconvincing and generates no concern amongst the others. With Yephikodov, Chekhov does several things. First, he satirizes the romantic, idealistic hero, common in Russian literature amongst authors like Pushkin, Tolstoy, and Dostoyevskycharacters such as Eugene Onegin and Prince Myshkin from The Idiot.
Yephikodov's talk of suicide might even be seen as a gross parody of Hamlet's contemplation of suicide in his famous soliloquoy; Shakespeare was widely read among Russian writers. More specifically, however, Yephikodov's revolver, as well as Charlotte's shotgun, mock nineteenth-century theatre's traditional reliance on "the gun"; many nineteenth-century plays were intensely melodramatic stories revolving around a duel or some other act of violence.
With this act of mockery, Chekhov at once declares his independence from nineteenth-century theater and also seems to warn against interpreting the current play in a tragic light; tragedy is much too funny, it seems, to be really tragic. Charlotte is a more complex character than Yephikodov; she stands apart from the lovers, declaring herself "alone".
As she leaves, she spouts a paradox in saying that "these clever men are all so stupid. As a carnival trickster, she is adept at manipulating illusions; the implication is that she can recognize the illusions others create and by which are fooled.
For example, the illusion Yephikodov creates that he is a Romantic hero, which convinces no one. Or Dunyasha's illusion that Yasha is in love with her, which convinces only herself; it is clear that Yasha considers Dunyasha to be nothing more than "a tasty little morsel".
And there is Yasha's illusion of culture and sophistications, to which both Yasha and Dunyasha succumb, but which is belied intellectually by his boorish treatment of Dunyasha and physically by the acrid smoke of his cigar. Act Two [from Ranevsky's entrance until Firs's entrance]: Summary Ranevsky, Gayev, and Lopakhin appear, and Lopakhin is once again trying to convince Ranevsky to convert her estate to cottages.
He demands a simple yes or no answer to his original idea. Ranevsky asks who has been smoking such "disgusting cigars", possible attempting to ignore him. She then drops her change purse.
Yasha picks it up, and then leaves, but not before a tense moment with Gayev. Gayev asks why he always sees Yasha "hanging around everywhere". Yasha laughs as soon as Gayev starts to speak, and apologizes, saying that he can't help laughing at the sound of Gayev's voice. Gayev demands that either Yasha leaves or he does. Ranevsky tells Yasha to leave, and he does, still laughing at Gayev.
Lopakhin informs the pair that a rich man, Deriganov, intends to buy the property. Gayev talks about a rich aunt in the town of Yaroslavl who may send money.
Lopakhin asks whether it will be in the range of one hundred thousand to two hundred thousand roubles; Gayev answers that it will be more like fifteen thousand.
Ranevsky says that the idea of cottages and summer visitors is "frightfully vulgar. He even calls Gayev "an old woman", after which Lopakhin turns around and begins to leave. But Ranevsky begs him to stay, because it's more "amusing" when he is around.
Ranevsky seems to express regret at the "sins" she and her brother have committed. Lopakhin wants to know what sins she refers to; Gayev says that he has wasted his substance on sweets, while popping one into his mouth.
But Ranevksy has something more serious in mind; she recounts the story of how when she left for France five years earlier, for her villa in Menton, she was followed by a lover with whom she had been having an affair with since before her husband's death.
In other words, a man with whom she had committed adultery. She also tells how last year, when she was forced to sell her villa in Menton, he robbed her, deserted her, and took up with another woman. The telegrams that have been arriving from Paris are from him, she says. He has been writing asking her forgiveness and for her to go back to France. Lopakhin makes a wry comment he heard in a play about Russians being "frenchified.
Lopakhin agrees, going further, saying that his life is "preposterous", that he was beat as a child, is unintelligent and unrefined, and that his handwriting is "awful". Ranevsky asks him why he doesn't marry Varya. He says he has nothing against it but then says nothing more, simply pausing.
Gayev informs everyone that he has been offered a job at a bank. Ranevsky insists that he refuse the offer, saying, "What, you in a bank! Lopakhin, as always, is the man of facts and figures: the orchard will be sold, it is just a matter to whom. In this situation, he comes across as demanding, pompous, and arrogant; he wants a simply "yes or no" and is insensitive to Ranevsky's obvious emotional attachment to the cherry orchard.
But we can feel his frustration when he calls Gayev an "old woman. And when Ranevsky insults Lopakhin, telling him his life is "drab," we feel sympathetic for him in this situation, especially because of his peasant childhood, his abusive father, and his lack of refinement.
When he castigates himself for his poor handwriting, we feel his insecurity. And this undercuts the impression we have formed of him as pompous and arrogant from the way he attempts to dictate to Ranevsky and Gayev. Ranevsky herself seems unable to comprehend her present situation.
This reinforces our impression of her as being childish, as does her dismissal of Lopakhin's scheme as "vulgar", when it may be the only way out of her financial mess. A mess for which, by her own admission, she is mostly to blame. But she also attracts the reader's sympathy. She has suffered tragedy in her life, and the fact that she was unable to bear it and was driven to a suicide attempt is a cause for pity. Furthermore, she acknowledges her problems with money, the foolishness of her extravagant spending habits.
There is the feeling that she is trying to be more reasonable, more practical, but is having great difficulty. We are tempted to feel for both characters. The tone of the play, then, switches between comic and tragic; we see the "scatter-brained" Gayev through Lopakhin's eyes as being ridiculous, as we laugh sympathetically at Lopakhin's insecurities and feel compassion for Ranevksy and her struggles.
An important part of Gayev's characterization is brought out by Yasha's laughter in this section: Gayev appears utterly ridiculous to the younger generation. Anya, too, is always interrupting his "foolish" speeches, out of concern that he doesn't embarrass himself.
For Gayev is a perpetual infant; he makes strange remarks, deals with Lopakhin's arguments by name-calling, and is continually popping sweets into his mouth. Ranevsky's apparent yearning to be a child again is taken to a logical extreme in Gayev, who is virtually a child, stuck emotionally and intellectually in his youth. In his youth, his family members were still wealthy landowners, and they probably still owned serfs.
He is thus tied to the old feudal order in a way that makes him anachronistic in present-day society, and his inability to grow as a human being ensures that he will stay that way. Act Two [ After Firs' entrance]: Summary Firs enters and talks about how good things were back in the old days, before the serfs were freed. Lopakhin, as the son of serfs, sarcastically agrees, "At least there were plenty of floggings.
Trofimov enters. He and Lopakhin exchange some barbed words. Lopakhin calls Trofimov an "eternal student" and wonders if he has reached his fiftieth birthday yet. Trofimov calls this an old joke. Lopakhin then asks Trofimov, "What do you think of me? Everyone laughs, then Gayev asks him to resume a discussion about pride that the two were having earlier. Trofimov asserts the folly of pride. His reasoning: man is a "pretty poor physiological specimen", and most of the human race is in misery, "the only thing to do" he says, "is work".
Despite his pessimism about man's current state, he expresses optimism for the future. He abuses Russian intellectuals for having no idea what work means. Lopakhin agrees with him, to a certain extent. According to Lopakhin, he gets up at five o'clock every morning and does nothing but work for the rest of the day.
He then proclaims that given the natural splendor of Russia, he is disappointed with its people. Its people should be "giants", he says. Ranevsky warns them to be careful for what they ask for, because "giants" could end up causing more trouble than they are worth. Gayev begins giving what seems to be almost a recitation of a poem about nature and how it unites the past with the present, before he is silenced by Anya.
In the ensuing deep silence, the sound of a cable or string breaking can be heard; no one is quite sure what it is, but Firs maintains he last heard similar sounds before the freeing of the serfs. Suddenly a drunken man comes by, asking for directions, and being a nuisance. Ranevsky makes him leave by giving him several gold pieces.
Varya is frightened by the encounter, so the entire party, with the exception of Trofimov and Anya, decide to leave. Trofimov and Anya then discuss their increasingly close relationship, which Trofimov describes as being "above love", though Varya is suspicious of it developing into a romance. Trofimov gives another speech about the debt all Russia is under from the legacy of serfdom, but how he has tremendous hopes for the future. The two go down by the river, leaving Varya alone in the woods, calling out for Anya in the dark.
Analysis In this section of the play, Chekhov makes explicit the social allegory that has, until now, been only implicit in the characters of Lopakhin and Ranevsky. The agent of this change in the text is Trofimov. Trofimov serves as a foil for Lopakhin. His idealism contrasts with Lopakhin's materialism, his high-flown rhetoric underscores Lopakhin's lack of sophistication. Yet they share a similar disdain for the past, which is symbolized by the cherry orchard.
With Trofimov, however, this disdain has an intellectual foundation, whereas Lopakhin's is rooted in personal memories.
To Trofimov, the cherry orchard is a symbol of oppression: its leaves are full of the faces of people that Anya's family "once owned," and it is full of the legacy of serfdom. Trofimov rails against Russian intellectuals, who merely talk about ideas but never act on them, while he exalts practical men and men of action.
To Trofimov, all this is evidence of a need to break with the past, to forge a bold new future, through work. Through the effect of his ideas on Anya, Trofimov manages to decrease her affection for the orchard; "Why is it that I'm not as fond of the orchard as I used to be? He replies, "All Russia is our orchard," thus explicitly broadening the scope of the play, beyond the confines of Ranevsky's estate, to Russian society as a whole.
The debate in which Trofimov is engaged is over who will write the history of the orchard, thereby choosing all that the orchard represents. Some see it as a symbol of beauty and some see it as a symbol of Russia's oppressive past. Judging by his conversion of Anya, it seems that Trofimov is succeeding in spreading his opinion of the orchard to future generations. There is some irony, however, in Trofimov's speech. First of all, his position seems to have arisen in intellectual conversation with Gayev.
And if anyone fits Trofimov's description of the Russian intellectual, then Trofimov and Gayev do - their lives are spent in conversation. Trofimov is the "eternal student", according to Lopakhin; he has been studying all his adult life; it has apparently made him very "ugly", at least according to Ranevsky. He is the stereotypical scholar, definitely not a man of action. In contrast to Gayev, Lopakhin and Trofimov appear remarkably similar.
One might think Trofimov would admire Lopakhin. Lopakhin seems to embody the practicality of which Trofimov speaks: he gets up at "five every morning" in order to work all day long.
He subscribes to a common sense version of the more sophisticated Social Darwinism that Trofimov advocates. But instead of his admiration, Lopakhin is the subject of a somewhat jovial disdain, and the feeling is mutual. For while Trofimov appeals to ideals such as truth and humanity to frame what is essentially a socialist utopian ideologyheavily influenced by the works of Karl Marx as well as Darwin's theory of evolutionLopakhin works, not for humanity, but for money.
The "sound of a breaking cable" comes during a silence in this debate; and Firs, the voice of the past, dislikes it intensely. The last time he has heard it was around the time the serfs were freed, a momentous event in Russian history that marked the beginning of the end for the aristocracy, the beginning of confusion for Firs, and the beginning of a new age for Trofimov. The breaking of the cable thus becomes identified with the end of an era.
It is a break in time. To reverse Gayev's metaphor, the dead and the living are now "unjoined". And it is now heard just before the sale of the cherry orchard, a momentous event in the personal history of the Ranevsky's family. Thus, the sound of the breaking cable explicitly links the personal history of the characters with the wider world of Russian society. Everyone is gathered at a party offstage, dancing a "grande ronde" in a circle.
They then begin a promenade, and enter the stage in pairs: Pischik and Charlotte, Trofimov and Ranevsky, Anya and a Post-Office Clerk, Varya who is crying and the local Stationmaster and several others. Finally, Dunyasha enters with a partner. Firs is serving the party in an old servants' uniform. Pischik and Trofimov leave to talk, mainly about Pischik's poor financial situation. Pischik asserts that all he can think about is money.
Trofimov teases Varya about how she is supposedly destined to marry Lopakhin. Pischik says he has heard that Nietzsche thought forging-bank notes was acceptable. Pischik complains about trying to scrape together enough money for a mortgage payment he must make the next day. At present, he has rubles out of He then suddenly can't find the rubles. He is briefly driven into a panic, until he finds the bank notes in the lining of his jacket.
Ranevsky wonders why Gayev is not home yet. She wants to know whether or not he has bought the estate and worries out loud about the auction. Trofimov suggests that perhaps the auction has not even taken place yet. Varya assures her that her uncle will have bought the estate with their aunt's money, that their aunt has also agreed to pay off the arrearage on the mortgage.
Trofimov expresses his doubts. Lopakhin has accompanied Gayev to the auction. To entertain the guests, Charlotte performs a series of magic tricks she learnt during her days going from town to town with her parents.
The Cherry Orchard
She performs a card trick, where she guesses the card Pischik has chosen. She performs a ventriloquist feat, throwing her voice so it seems to come out of the floor. And then, much to the everyone's amazement, she takes a rug, and makes Anya and Varya suddenly appear behind it. Pischik professes that he is amazed at Charlotte and has fallen in love with her. The Stationmaster too, is quite impressed. After she is done, Ranevsky confides in private conversation to Varya that she shouldn't get upset when people tease her about Lopakhin and that in fact she should marry him if she likes him.
Varya confesses that she does, but she feels that Lopakhin will never propose because he is too preoccupied with business. And Varya feels that it is improper to propose herself. She expresses again the desire to go to a convent, saying that if she had a few rubles she would.
Trofimov mocks her.
Yasha soon enters, laughing, telling everyone that Yephikodov has broken a pool cue. Varya is incensed that Yephikodov is even at the party and doubly so that he is playing billiards. She leaves to sort things out. Analysis The structure of this act, more than any other, involves the building of dramatic tension.
It has a much quicker pace than the two preceding acts, which contain, as Donald Rayfield notes, zero pauses compared to seven in Act One and sixteen in Act Two.
At first, we are presented with dancing, music and, we must imagine, happiness. Then all of a sudden, Varya enters weeping. Immediately, tension is created; we want to know why, in the midst of all this celebration, Varya is so sad. Two answers emerge. First of all, there is the matter of Lopakhin and his reluctance to propose.
Trofimov's teasing of Varya only reveals an underlying sensitivity to the matter. Everyone else treats Lopakhin and Varya's engagement as something that has already happened. But Varya has severe doubts about whether Lopakhin will ever take the time to settle down and get married. She feels that he is much too preoccupied with his business affairs to do so.I thank you from the bottom of my heart.
Chekhov and the Drama of Social Change: ‘The Cherry Orchard’
For Gayev is a perpetual infant; he makes strange remarks, deals with Lopakhin's arguments by name-calling, and is continually popping sweets into his mouth. Yasha responds by kissing her and calling her a "tasty little morsel," just as he did when they first met. But the idyll is not wholly interrupted: the telegraph poles challenge and disrupt this picture of things, and Charlotte, as a young woman, wears a man's hat and carries a man's weapon.
Trofimov is outraged and leaves.
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