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VISUAL DICTIONARY OF ARCHITECTURE PDF

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A VISUA l DICTIO N ARY OF ARCHITECTURE fIlAN(U O. K. (H INC; i i I- A f VISUAL DICTIONARY OF J ARCH ITECTU RE J I I I I I I I I FRANCIS D.K. CHING A. graphic and verbal communication is the basis for this visual dictionary of architecture. Instead of an alphabeticallistil19 of entries as found in most dictionaries. A Visual Dictionary of Architecture - Second Edition - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf) or read book online. A Visual Dictionary of Architecture - Second.


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The shearing force developed at the instruktsiya.info of a structure Dy the tendency of Its upper mass to remain at rest while the!rase Is translated Dy ground motions. K. (H INC iiI- Af VISUAL DICTIONARY OFJ ARCH ITECT. ARCHITECTURE art The consclenu use of skill craft. and creative lm.1glnatk>n. An essential one-volume reference of architectural topics using Francis D.K. Ching's signature presentation. It is the only dictionary that provides concise.

Before digital video games and virtual worlds, illustrators provided charming and amusing images for board games such as Monopoly, Snakes and Ladders, Tiddley Skittles and Taxi.

This s Taxi board game box is by Ariel. Illustration is commissioned to communicate brand identities for retail, entertainment and transport companies, and function as information design in the threedimensional world.

Environmental illustration can also encompass concept art for computer-game environments and collaborations with architects, landscape architects, graphic designers and industrial designers. Environmental art, along with land and installation art, often transforms natural and urban spaces with large-scale artworks, which provide a rich source of inspiration.

An image is produced by a needle on a metal plate usually made of copper, zinc or steel, which has been coated with an acid-resisting ground. The plate is put into a mordant acid bath that etches the lines to the depth required. Faint lines can be protected by stop-out varnish.

The darkness of the print is dependent on the depth of the line. After a series of bitings, the plate can be inked and wiped; the ink remains on the depressed lines or tones and is picked up on dampened paper by the etching press. Illustrations by NB Studio Illustration is a useful medium for conveying ethical and serious messages, as seen below in the examples for Christian Aid.

This project was designed by NB Studio. Strong emotions were conveyed through distortion and the bold and symbolic use of colour. F Fantasy 97 A genre of illustration featuring fictional worlds and references to magical heroes, imaginary creatures, myths, legends, lost worlds, sorcery and the Middle Ages.

This fantasy illustration by Dan Seagrave combines decorative elements with ominous overtones and was used as an album cover for Demon Hunter on Solid State Records.

F Fashion Illustration 98 Drawings commissioned by designers required to visually communicate styles of apparel, accessories, cosmetics and hairstyles in the current mode. This Flaunt magazine cover illustration was designed by Mario Hugo using graphite and china ink on acetone stained paper. The term is associated with the Symbolists and the Aesthetic movement, Art Nouveau, La Belle Epoque, decadence and the anticipation of cultural upheaval during the period between and It characterised a historical period that was a precursor of Modernism.

In London during the early s, photocopied designs on different-coloured paper stock were used as a cheap way to promote club events — they also became a way for emerging illustrators to gain exposure for their work.

The Folio Society has published over 1, editions and has made an important contribution to the illustrated book. It is also applied to objects made in America during the colonial period. Folk art has often inspired the work of artists such as Kandinsky. Many contemporary illustrators draw inspiration from this source.

Ernst created a series of experimental drawings from rubbings taken from the patterns in the grain of old wooden floors, which he published as Histoire Naturelle in Popular genres and sub genres include fairytales, fables, westerns, comedy, adventure, biography, historical romance, horror, mystery, science fiction, fantasy, crime fiction, thrillers. Gillray was a leading figure in the history of British illustration.

With biting wit, he produced over 1, etchings ridiculing the vanity and social customs of his time. Graffiti ranges from carvings and scrawlings on property to aerosol spray painting of subway cars, vans and streets. Evidence of graffiti has been found in the ancient civilisations of the Mayans, Greeks and Romans, and it has always been associated with the conveyance of political, satirical or radical social messages. He handdraws his images with fineliner pens and then scans and reduces them.

The results demonstrate his love of integrating typography, drawing and design. This term was first coined by designer William Addison Dwiggins in Graphic design is a profession, and an applied and practical visual art form. It is also a process of visualising and communicating concepts, ideas and messages through the effective combination of text and image. Graphic design integrates a range of skills and techniques such as typography, layout design and illustration.

It can be applied in any media including motion graphics, animation, web design, packaging, signage, advertisements, posters, logos, magazines and books. A term employed to market comic books with a lengthy unified narrative. Although working at a time of mass production and urban squalor during the Industrial Revolution in Britain, Greenaway created an idyllic world in sentimental picture books with her beautifully crafted watercolour illustrations.

Greetings cards are often sent on holidays and occasions to be remembered. Hand-made greetings cards were first sent by the Ancient Egyptians and the first commercially printed greetings card was the Christmas card, which was invented by Sir Henry Cole in Millions of printed cards are sold every year and virtual cards can also be sent by e-mail. It is a personal and unique process that offers limitless possibilities, expressiveness and spontaneity for the illustrator.

Hand lettering includes sign writing, contemporary graffiti writing, inscriptions, embroidery and calligraphy. It makes use of the skilful art of writing as opposed to the systematic setting of type.

These books contained detailed illustrations and descriptions of the magical and medicinal properties of herbs and plants. They are phonetic and pictographic signs integrated with abstract and observational drawings. Colour was also used symbolically.

The earliest illustrations to have survived are evident in papyrus rolls such as the Book of the Dead and the Ramesseum Papyrus. The internet has encouraged illustrators to explore historical imagery and find inspiration in visual languages from a vast range of eclectic sources. Originally trained as a silversmith, Hogarth studied painting under Sir John Thornhill and produced sequential paintings and engravings. His engravings are now seen as precursors of the comic strip or graphic novel.

The www. Humorous illustrations can be found in gag cartoons, comics, caricatures and satirical cartoons, which employ parody, incongruity, metaphors, surprise, hyperbole and absurdity.

The art of making people laugh has always been fundamental to illustration, comic books and cartooning and has made an important contribution to our artistic heritage. It is rooted in the sharp-focused naturalism and realist painting of the Dutch School of painters and the Pre-Raphaelites. Some illustrators specialising in hyperrealism produce intricate renderings conveying information for a wide range of contexts.

Techniques and materials have ranged from detailed watercolours and oils to airbrushes and the latest digital software and hardware. A thought or mental image formulated by consciousness, giving rise to concepts and knowledge. Illustrators solve specific problems for distinct audiences, while elucidating words pictorially through the generation of ideas and concepts.

When first presented with a brief, illustrators generate ideas. They were developed in monasteries and they are adorned and decorated by complex interlacing patterns, initials, borders and miniature illustrations painted in bright tempera colours, as well as gold and silver leaf. They were mainly produced for religious purposes such as illuminated Christian Bibles and Islamic manuscripts.

Special issues have also acted as showcases for illustration students. The influential publication was large format and contained 16 pages with 30 engravings per issue.

Victorian illustrators drew eyewitness images that were sent as quickly as possible to woodblock engravers for reproduction. These pictorial journalists brought news from all over the British Empire, covering expeditions, disasters, art exhibitions, political events, Paris fashions, wars and new inventions during the Industrial Revolution.

This creative and resourceful faculty is essential for visualisation and problem solving. Imagination is vital for illustrators in order to create work that is meaningful, innovative, unusual and original.

The image below shows that imagination produces unique interpretations, which combine logical thinking with intuition. Outlets include instructional diagrams, maps, pictographs, encyclopedias, educational textbooks, interactive design and web interface design. This annual report by NB Studio delivers information with clarity and a clean, contemporary tone.

Creative inspiration can come from breaking away from routine, going for a walk, doodling, visiting a cinema, a library, a flea market, an art gallery or travelling to another country. Building an archive and keeping a digital camera and notebook handy can help record and establish links between inspiring ideas and images. I Internet Copyright Banjomama A global network that connects millions of computers, in order to share and exchange information from small and large networks.

The internet has completely changed the visual communication industry. Illustrators are now able to network, seek new business opportunities and deliver their work to clients globally via the internet. Illustrators employ interpretation to elucidate, illuminate and amplify written language with their own use of visual language.

The ability to create a world and explain a narrative, an idea or theme pictorially is the fundamental activity of illustration. Interpreting text must take into consideration plot development, mood, rhythm and pace of the narrative. J Juxtaposition The conscious act of arranging or placing visual elements side by side to show similarities and differences.

Illustrators utilise witty juxtapositions combined with other visual devices, such as similes or metaphors. By positioning contrasting images next to one another, a series of meanings and associations can be produced. The use of surprising contrasts runs throughout the work of many humorous illustrators such as W Heath Robinson and his compilations of drawings in Absurdities Connections or contrasts are highlighted and implied when two images are placed side by side.

Kirby revolutionised comics by drawing thousands of pages with dynamic cinematic techniques, distortions, exaggerated perspectives, crackling dots of energy, centre spreads and photomontage. K Kitsch The German word associated with trash, cheapness, vulgarity, pretentious art and popular, sentimental, commercial culture. The so-called kitsch commercial art of comics, pulp fiction, advertisements and magazine covers was viewed as the opposite to high art — an inferior art.

However, the appropriation of kitsch has been a recurring theme in modern art from Dada and Surrealism to Pop Art and Postmodernism. Knitted items are now considered fashion accessories. These designs by Studio Myerscough show a contemporary approach to typographic design through the use of knitting.

It is a fundamental activity for a student of illustration. This activity involves the co-ordination of the eye, brain and hand. It improves on skills such as comparing relationships and proportions, framing, assessing negative and positive space, and being aware of internal structure and the three-dimensional volume of a figure.

There are few straight lines present in nature. A contour line is an illusion applied in drawing, which encloses form and creates a boundary. Lines have many properties that can communicate emotions and ideas. They can be rhythmic, strong, energetic, agitated, graceful, controlling, subtle and vigorous. L Linocut A relief printmaking method developed as an easier alternative to producing woodcuts.

As linoleum has no grain, it can be cut in any direction. Linocuts are created by carving and cutting into linoleum with knives or gouges. The surface uncut areas are inked and printed, producing a reversed mirror image.

Images are drawn on to a surface in litho crayon or oily ink; the flat surface is then treated with gum arabic and the ink is washed off, while the stone retains the grease. Prints are made from zinc, aluminium plate or stone with subtle graduations of tone and texture.

Colour lithography or chromolithography was developed in by using separate stones and drawings for each colour used. L Live Painting Photograph of live-painting event in Hitachinaka, Japan, by Mark Wigan The act of painting in front of a live audience, usually associated with mural painting, graffiti and street art. The images below show a live-painting event in Hitachinaka, Japan. The calligraphy and ornamentation were done by William Morris.

The books were produced for collectors as a reaction to the poor quality of products being commercially printed during the Industrial Revolution.

William Morris is a key figure in the tradition, making his own handmade books and forming the Kelmscott Press in A recognisable emblem, symbol, sign or icon designed with letterforms or logotype to form a trademark that denotes a specific institution, company or brand. Graphical logo designs are used to embody brands and provide instant recognition. Ideograms signs, icons, emblems or symbols are employed with logotypes to communicate across cultures and languages.

It contains articles, advertisements, illustrations and photographs. Outstanding illustrators such as Norman Rockwell, J C Leyendecker, Al Parker, Robert Weaver and Saul Steinberg visually communicated the aspirations and concerns of millions through the medium of the printed magazine. This is the cover for Journal des Voyages — a magazine popular in the s. Subject matter ranges from the humorous, romantic and violent to the sexually explicit.

M Maps Throughout the development of civilisation, mapping the known world has been an essential activity. Cartography and topography were created for military campaigns, voyages of conquest, exploration, pilgrimages, trade routes and scientific surveys.

Maps for leisure were also produced. In the s and s, Ordnance Survey maps of the British Isles became hugely popular for motoring, cycling and walking tours. The art of illustration can be employed as part of a campaign to create desire, catch the eye or stimulate action to launch new products and services, or rebrand established ones.

Artwork can be produced for promotional tie—ins such as novelty goods, cards, games, toys, textiles, clothing and figurines. Illustrators retain the copyright of the artwork and grant licences for specific use on products over a certain time period and for certain territories.

The illustrator is usually involved in quality control and ensures that the merchandise is satisfactory. Contemporary illustrators often utilise scanners and digital cameras, mixing hand-crafted elements with digital effects.

L Mosaic Decorative images constructed from small cubes of coloured stone, ceramic, glass or marble. Murals have existed for centuries and can be found in prehistoric cave paintings; the walls of ancient Egyptian tombs; Greek and Roman frescos; churches of the Middle Ages; and seventeenth-century European palaces.

Murals are art for the people — they function outside of the established gallery-based art world. The cover was designed for Birdman Ray; old woodcuts were used with a contemporary twist. An innovative field of expression for illustrators and designers, iconic examples have defined and reflected the development of popular and visual culture.

Music graphics attract potential purchasers and communicate the values associated with the product. Constantly evolving and adapting, the field has developed from iconic vinyl record sleeves to CDs to providing visual content for downloads, websites, branding, videos, set design and merchandise.

Events, characters and settings are arranged in a consistent and meaningful framework by the illustrator in order to convey the storyline visually. Maurice Sendak stated that his intention as an illustrator was to let the story speak for itself with his pictures acting as a kind of background music — music in the right style, always in tune with the words.

The interpretation of fictional or non-fictional events through pictorial storytelling is at the heart of the ancient art of illustration. Illustrators use their art to charm, entertain, educate and engage the imagination.

The cartoonists of the New Yorker are noted for reflecting and defining the times with disarming humour and sophisticated wit. All Rights Reserved.

N New Yorker, The N Notebook A portable pad of paper that can be used for jotting down ideas, observations and quick sketches, which may inform current or future projects. Ideas can come at any time, so it is important to get them down on paper before they are forgotten. Illustration requires attentiveness and sustained practice and notebooks exist to be filled. The immediacy of a notebook sketch can sometimes provide a direct answer to a brief and can be scanned into the computer.

Notebooks are also a way of reflecting on progress. The above notebook by Becky French demonstrates how eclectic and varied a resource a notebook can become. Through looking, scrutiny, awareness and hand-eye-brain co-ordination, lines, shapes, edges and space relationships are generated and manipulated by the illustrator.

Observational drawing is seen as an essential building block in the education of an illustrator. During the eighteenth century, illustrators set out to survey and classify all forms of nature around the world. The growth of the British Empire and the Industrial Revolution of the nineteenth century made London the leading city for the publication of lithographic volumes and imperial folios on birds from around the world including those of Edward Lear and John Gould.

A pioneer in the field was American naturalist John James Audubon, who created hand-coloured metal engravings for the outstanding four-volume, double-elephant folio, The Birds of America Key features include physiognomisation, horror vacui, meticulous line, absence of differentiation and use of mixed media. P Packaging Art direction by 3 Deep Design The design of outer wrappings or encasements used to contain, protect and promote a product.

Illustration is often employed to identify, label and help sell products via their packaging. Illustration plays an important role in packaging design, conveying a sense of what a product is, its values and characteristics.

The above images feature fragrances created by six renowned perfumers working with six celebrated designers. Types of paint Acrylic: This thin material is available in a range of weights, colours and textures and is widely used for drawing, writing and printing. Although it was first produced in China in the second century AD, paper was not used in Europe until the twelfth century.

There is a huge range of papers of varying thicknesses and sizes available to the illustrator. Medium paper with a slight tooth can break up the lines of the drawing, giving it character.

Bristol board, illustration boards, bond or graphic papers can be utilised for pen drawing. Heavier papers are used for watercolours. Paper that needs to be dampened is used for intaglio printing, and thin papers are generally used for relief printing.

General paper types: Newsprint Paper made primarily of mechanically ground newspapers, comics and wood pulp. It has a shorter lifespan than other papers, but it is cheap to produce. Antique A high-quality paper with a clay coating on both sides, which gives a good printing surface.

Uncoated woodfree The largest printing and writing paper category. Most office paper and stationery is printed on this stock. Tracing A thin, translucent paper that allows light through, enabling artists to transfer images by tracing.

Art Useful for halftones where definition and detail are important. Cartridge A thick white paper particularly used for pencil and ink drawings; adds texture to publications. A versatile and expressive tool, it can be sharpened to a point for precise and eloquent mark-making. They range from wooden graphite pencils graded 8H the hardest to 8B the softest , with HB being in the middle. Different types include clutch and propelling pencils, coloured pencils, charcoal, chalk and crayon pencils.

Self-initiated work enabling illustrators to experiment with new working methodologies and processes, which broaden techniques and skills. Experimental personal projects, such as self-published books, editions of prints, T-shirts and short films show clients the kind of work artists are passionate about and how their work could be applied to specific projects.

Objects are drawn smaller as they recede in space. One-, two- and three-point perspective create the illusion of depth. Aerial perspective is based on the idea that atmospheric conditions blur outlines and affect the colour of objects at a distance.

Exaggerated perspective was employed for its psychological effects in expressionist art, film noir and in the work of graphic artists such as Frank Miller. Illustrators create symbolic images commissioned for propaganda, education, entertainment and advertising in order to win over their target audience.

Illustration by James Brown This piece by James Brown is a one-colour linocut illustrated in a manner that suits the copy — very polite and gentlemanly. Photocopiers have been adopted by illustrators, artists and designers as a creative tool. Digital laser copiers became key tools for illustrators in the late s and early s. The images were created by Kate Gibb for Jalouse magazine.

Photography is the art of using a camera to capture an image on a light-sensitive plate via the chemical action of light. Many illustrators use photography to gather visual reference material, supplementing personal observations and drawings.

P Photomontage Also described by contemporary digital illustrators and visualisers as compositing, photomontage is a technique that creates a new composite image by superimposing, combining or merging photographic images from different sources.

The technique has also been adopted by commercial artists for the advertising industry from the early twentieth century onwards. Many written languages such as Chinese use pictogrammatic characters.

Pictograms appear throughout the history of illustration and have been used extensively throughout the twentieth century to identify corporations, products and brands, and to instruct and inform. Pictogram or Symbol This pictogram is an image of a recognisable dog.

Ideogram The ideogram is depicted by the red circle and line, which give the message: Icon The bone is not an obvious image of a dog, but it represents and conveys the same message. Logo The logo is a graphic interpretation of a dog.

Face-toface pitches are now rare as many illustration jobs are commissioned via agents or by clients selecting illustrators through work seen in annuals or on-line portfolios. Thorough research about a potential client is key to a successful pitch. The Oxfam advertisement above uses immediate and rhetorical illustrative text for visual impact.

The intelligent, poetic, bold and surreal posters designed for cultural events were seen as an art form of equal importance to paintings in galleries. P Pop-ups Pop-up display by Mio Yoshi A book that creates a three-dimensional structure that rises when a page is turned.

Illustrated pop-up books often feature cut-outs and tabs that are pulled to move and enhance the meaning of the imagery. Pop-up books can function as freestanding sculptures and utilise a variety of inventive techniques such as flaps to open, fold-outs, pull-out tabs, rotating wheels and small books inserted in pockets.

Orchestrating the narrative flow of the portfolio and selecting the right illustrations for the specific client is an important process. Portfolios can come in various sizes and can range from standard zip-up portfolios to expensive high-quality leather-bound folios with clear sleeves. Many illustrators now display their work via online portfolios.

P Postcards Small rectangular cards used to send a message by post without the need of an envelope. One side of the card is written on and the other side often features an illustration or photograph, which can function as souvenirs.

Since the nineteenth century, the simple rectangular piece of card has provided illustrators with a distinctive platform for their artwork. Highly collectable, picture postcards have documented and reflected the social history of their times.

Humour is a popular theme and the prolific illustrator Donald McGill is renowned for his popular and saucy seaside postcards. P Poster, The A small, illustrated, monthly chronicle published in London, which reflects the popular interest in collecting posters.

Potter was an outstanding storyteller and watercolourist. She is also highly regarded as a scientific observer, landscapist and recorder of the natural world. In her sketchbook journals, she combined writing with precise renderings from nature including skilful paintings of fossils and fungi, constantly experimenting in a variety of styles and techniques. Intaglio Ink is forced into slots or grooves. Squeegee Ink roller Ink Lithography A damp roller goes before the inking roller, making ink stick only to dry areas.

Stencil Mesh Ink Screenprinting Ink is forced through a mesh, following the stencil pattern. A category of art or design involving the process of reproducing single or multiple images by transferring them from one surface to another.

Images are usually reproduced on a flat, prepared surface such as a plate, block or screen, and printed using ink on paper. Printmaking is constantly developing and can incorporate the use of numerous media. The main categories of printmaking: Relief printing: Intaglio methods: Digital printmaking: The posters mirrored the spirit of their times and the postmodern appropriation of historical poster art.

A live, psychedelic, acid house installation in Nagoya, Japan, in Colourful cover art played a vital role in the advertising of cheap pulp fiction magazines between the s and s, as well as paperbacks published since the s.

Paul became highly popular and collectable for their sensational and exotic covers. P Punk An anarchic music, art and street fashion subculture with a visual style characterised by the illustrations, collage techniques and graphics of artists such as Bazooka, Barney Bubbles, Malcolm Garrett, Neville Brody, Jamie Reid and Peter Saville.

This Punk-Graphix, cut-and-paste illustration was produced for a fanzine. The studio responded to the minimal modernist international design style of the s and had an illustrative, conceptual, inventive, humorous and eclectic approach.

The founders incorporated diverse influences into their illustrations including Renaissance painting, Art Nouveau, Victorian type and comic books. The studio launched its own promotional journal: A raster image can reproduce intricate tones.

However, images are of fixed resolutions so they cannot be scaled, and image files tend to be large. Rasters come in two main types: All rasters are made of pixels or small squares.

R Rebus An enigmatic visual device used by illustrators and designers. It is a visual puzzle that involves the use of sounds, pictograms, symbols and signs, which replace words to reveal a message when read together. Short cuts commonly used in text messaging, such as the ones shown below, play on words and sounds much in the same way as a rebus. Late L8r: Later M8: Mate ne1: Anyone A term used in illustration to describe the use of visual material that relates to the topic or subject matter of the commission or work.

Illustrators gather visual reference required for specific briefs from a wide range of sources. Reference imagery is substantially altered by illustrators, aware of the need to use the images to fuel their imaginations and personal visual interpretations, while not infringing on copyright. Developments in the arts during this time included: The illustrator therefore functions as a visual journalist.

The term is related to eyewitness reporting, analysis, observation and travel. Illustrators were in demand for periodicals such as The Illustrated London News in the nineteenth century to report on people, places and events. The illustrator has always acted as a visual journalist and travelling documentarist.

Its opposite is abstraction or non-representational art. In illustration, it is also the manipulation of signs and visual language to communicate and stand for something else. Representation is an important aspect of visual communication studies, aesthetics and semiotics. The works of Charles Sanders Peirce — and Ferdinand de Saussure — made a significant contribution by developing theories on iconic, symbolic and indexical representations and the theory that language is a series of signs.

Icon An actual image of a horse, which visually represents the image being discussed. Symbol This horseshoe icon represents a horse at its most basic level, but it implies other meanings such as horse racing or good luck. Index This anvil can be associated with a horse or blacksmith, but it depicts neither. Broad and in-depth research is the activity illustrators engage in when first receiving a brief. The act of constantly drawing and reading are also fundamental types of research.

It is used to describe fashions, trends, and illustrative styles of the past. Once trends become unfashionable, they are revived or imitated in the work of illustrators in ironic and playful ways, an activity associated with Postmodernism. My fundamental purpose is to interpret the typical American. I am a storyteller.

His legacy includes the highly popular covers he illustrated for Saturday Evening Post and his paintings on civil rights of the s. It has been seen as a precursor to Modernism and was inspired by medievalism, folklore, emotions and narrative.

About The Visual Dictionary of Architecture

For many years graphic artists have used irony, exaggeration, analogy, sarcasm and parody to make fun of and insult subjects. Examples include the witty cartoons of satirical Victorian magazines such as Punch and the political editorial illustrations of Steve Bell. The scanned celery above has an altered colour and produces a result that is different from a traditional photograph. An external electronic device that digitises images by capturing, saving and converting them to digital files that can be read by the computer.

Scanners have become a key tool in illustration and design; their affordability and widespread use has also impacted on the aesthetics of contemporary art practice. The field includes travel through time and space, life on other planets, imagined technology, aliens, robots and cyborgs, and has provided illustrators with absorbing and challenging subject matter since the s.

Often set in the future or outer space, science fiction speculates on events, engages with a wide variety of themes and makes imaginative use of technological and scientific knowledge. The painting below by Rowena Morill depicts the famous science-fiction author Isaac Asimov.. This was a personal sketch depicting inebriation. Books with blank pages on to which items such as newspaper cuttings, postcards, illustrations, memorabilia and magazine articles are pasted down on and preserved within.

Scrapbooks also exist in digital form as multimedia personal albums.

Karl Angerer developed the scratchboard in ; it involved the use of chalk on a cardboard substrate that was covered in black ink, which was then scraped off to reveal the white clay. A stencil of taut finely woven fabric, such as nylon or polyester, is attached to a frame; the non-printed areas of the screen are coated or masked, the screen is then placed on the material to be printed, and a squeegee or rubber blade is used to pump ink through the areas of the screen that have not been coated.

Illustrators can promote themselves through any of the following methods: Postcards and hand-made prints remain a popular form of self-promotion for illustrators. The design process was an exercise in drawing type from memory without the aid of a computer, in order to achieve an authentic s feel. Illustrators can now take control of their creations, along with the distribution and marketing aspects of their work. Following the tradition of William Blake, William Morris, the s underground press and Punk, many illustrators now engage in personal, self-initiated DIY publishing projects.

A Visual Dictionary of Architecture - Second Edition

Illustrators can produce limited-edition publications and merchandise and promote themselves through websites, forums, on- and off-line galleries, blogs and exhibitions. This term is associated with comics, graphic novels, sequential art and book illustration. The act of creating artwork using intuition, automatic drawing and found objects was a fundamental aspect of the Dada and Surrealist movements.

Mistakes and so-called happy accidents are inherent in pictorial image-making such as Photoshop tweaking, silk-screen printing and life drawing, and can lead the way to new directions, visual techniques and languages. S Silhouette Outline drawings, usually portraits in profile, filled in black. The name is derived from Etienne de Silhouette — , a French finance minister whose name became associated with cheaply made products. Silhouettes were a form of inexpensive portraiture where a likeness was created from cutting paper shadows freehand or by working from life-sized shadows reduced by a pantograph.

They first appeared in ancient Egyptian murals and, like shadow puppets, became popular in late sixteenth-century France. S Skateboard A board manufactured in a variety of sizes with a set of four wheels mounted below it. Skateboards feature two-metal trucks or axles, polyurethane wheels and decks, which are often illustrated by graphic artists for manufacturers. The brand identities and clothing of skate companies have also featured innovative illustrations.

Mark Wigan-designed skate and surf boards for Fine magazine,Japan, It is useful to have a pocket-sized notebook to keep with you at all times as a visual diary of travels, places and events. Coded instructions in the form of programs, which direct the operation of computer hardware.

The programs perform specific tasks such as running operating systems, utilities and applications software, which instruct the computer in processing data. The range of computer software being employed by illustrators such as Photoshop, Illustrator, Flash, Dreamweaver, Final Cut Pro and Maya provides opportunities to produce high-quality work for print, moving image and the web. New techniques are rapidly assimilated globally by digital-savvy illustrators. Spot illustrations are usually considered to be fairly simple images one column in width.

This illustration is by A. Richard Allen, who works in the editorial illustration field for many magazines. Print runs for stamps can run into hundreds of millions and commissions can include popular commemorative stamps, souvenir sheets, sports events, famous people, celebrations, wildlife, architecture, art and historical events. He commented on humanity with a unique, intelligent and consistent pictorial imagination, and appropriated a wide range of artistic references.

His work blurred boundaries between disciplines and included numerous covers and drawings for The New Yorker, as well as for books, public murals, stage-set designs and international exhibitions of sculptures, drawings, collages and prints. The art is related to early spray painting over hands to form outlines in cave paintings dating before 10, BC. Stencils are used to create layers in silk screen printing, mimeography in official contexts and political, ironic and satirical graffiti.

Rapidly produced stencil street art is a worldwide movement. Examples include the works of anarchist punk band Crass and Banksy. S Storyboard Copyright doodlemachine A visual storytelling tool adopted as a way of pre-visualising live-action films from the s onwards. The storyboard is now also employed in developing websites and interactive games, visual thinking in business and pitching ideas to clients.

In the film industry, professional storyboard artists create two-dimensional and three-dimensional sequential illustrations to aid producers, directors, cinematographers, art directors and actors. Visual storytelling is an ancient cultural form of communication dating back to cave paintings. It is a fundamental aspect of illustration and is used to entertain, explain, educate and promote values through the visual interpretation of myths, legends, fables, tales and stories. The activity merges installation, social and political commentary, symbolic iconography, graphic logos and illustration.

Photography by Xavier Young S Studio Working studios are bases to work in and run a freelance business from — they could be shared spaces or spare rooms in homes. They could also function as a museum for previously published work and serve as a gallery or showcase platform to potential clients.

The images above are all portraits, but each has its own individual style. Surrealism has had an enduring influence on illustration. This surreal montage is from a series of portraits Tribu by contemporary illustrator Catherine McIntyre. Symbolism is used to describe narrative artwork with psychological, erotic and mystical iconography and themes.

The use of symbols to express abstract concepts was also used extensively in surrealism.

Tattooing is the marking of the skin by pricking and filling in the punctures with indelible inks. The tattoo industry is a popular field of illustration. Interesting examples of the art include full-body Japanese yakuza and gang tattoos, Maori facial tattoos and temporary Mehndi tattoos.

It can be produced for specialist users or the general public in the form of operating instructions and manuals. Technical illustrations are required for items such as biological studies, mechanical drafting, cartography, blueprints, weather forecasts, astronomy and chemical reactions.

Technical illustrators could also provide sophisticated digital imagery for museums and interactive educational products. It was brought to life by animation specialists, GraphixAsset Ltd. It is an area that makes extensive use of computer graphics, especially 3D modelling and animation.

Illustrators produce images for a number of textile products including clothes, furnishings, carpets, flags, bags and towels. A tongue-in-cheek look at musical genres using three-dimensional rendering techniques, designed by Studio Output. T Thumbnail A small and quickly executed sketch that generates a number of ideas.

Title sequences include film titles, cast members and production credits. Saul Bass pioneered the development of the film title sequence as an independent art form during the s and s. T Toys Objects that are manufactured to be played with and collected. They have ancient origins dating back to the beginning of human civilisation. Famous toys include Star Wars figures, Barbie and Lego. Many toys have been based on illustrations and vice versa. An illustration that places emphasis on looking, thinking, seeing and observing.

Traditional illustrations include personal and hand-crafted techniques used by illustrators. Diverse approaches include animation, silk-screen, embroidery, collage and three-dimensional work. Technical advances in all forms of transport have also provided illustrators with a rich source of travel subject matter, from the picturesque tourist books of the nineteenth century to the Golden Age of travel posters during the s and s.

As it is easier for some illustrators to copy than to think of something new, many follow the latest trend. Trends have included mimicking the work of modern art movements and outsider art, and imitating the work of illustrators from the s and s.

This mini world was created by Studio Output using hand-drawn illustrations for a student pack for London-based club, Ministry of Sound. T-shirts are used by artists and illustrators to exhibit their works and they remain iconic forms of visual communication. Many illustrators collaborate with designers who commission work and apply typefaces on to artwork for reproduction. Typography and typeface design can now be generated by illustrators using software and computers.

Typography is a constantly-evolving discipline that conveys messages through the use of design and the selection and composition of typefaces. This is a portrait of the rapper Eminem commissioned by GQ magazine.

The prints feature flat, bold colours, the rhythmic and sensuous use of line and asymmetrical composition. Subject matter ranges from Kabuki theatre, sumo wrestlers, courtesans, nature and historical tales to erotica. Urban vinyl has provided a new outlet for the imaginations of illustrators and designers in the twenty-first century. Hand-made, limited-edition designer soft toys by the likes of Devil Robots, Boris Hopek and Pretty Ugly are popular with adult collectors. The products below are vinyl toys made by Devil Robots in Japan.

The publication was launched in and investigates the work of practitioners from around the world, who are making significant contributions to illustration and image-making. Writers, commentators and illustrators are given a platform to discuss illustration in a wider context, and image-makers and schools from the past are referenced. Put simply, in order to create a line, all you need to know is the start point and the end point.

To create an arch, you need the start point, the end point and the angle, or trajectory, of the line. Unlike a raster image, a vector can be scaled, without any degradation of quality.

Vector Vector enlarged Raster Raster enlarged The vector image top, left and its detail, show how enlarging does not degrade quality. The vector is made of mathematical points and is scalable. The raster image above, left however, degrades when enlarged as it is made of squares or pixels. These elements begin to show up as seen in the raster detail when the enlargement is too great.

It usually covers popular imagery often adapted from a formal style, which also sometimes derives influence from folk traditions. An eclectic mix of ornaments and vernacular art could serve as inspiration to an illustrator. Illustration created during the reign of Queen Victoria of Great Britain — The Victorian period embodied technical invention and experimentation, resulting in advances in photography and printing processeses.

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A Visual Dictionary of Architecture

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Payment details. Payment method. Current bid amount. Your high bid amount: Your bid amount: Calculating import charges Confirm -.This illustration was created by Caroline Tomlinson for Transmission magazine. Collaboration is an important aspect of professional illustration.

Button badges were first produced in the s and, like the T-shirt, have been associated with political protest and youth culture. Others are inserted simply because they are of historical Interest. J urean planning. Interesting examples of the art include full-body Japanese yakuza and gang tattoos, Maori facial tattoos and temporary Mehndi tattoos.

Cartridge A thick white paper particularly used for pencil and ink drawings; adds texture to publications. Following the tradition of William Blake, William Morris, the s underground press and Punk, many illustrators now engage in personal, self-initiated DIY publishing projects. One can then refer to the appropriate section, brOn-5e the illustrations, and scan fer the terms.

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