WIND ENERGY PDF FILE
Harvesting wind power isn't exactly a new idea – sailing ships, wind-mills, wind- pumps. 1st Wind Energy Systems. – Ancient Civilization in the Near East / Persia. Wind Energy -- Energy from Moving Air. Energy from the Wind. The History of Wind. How Wind Machines Work. Types of Wind Machines. Wind Power Plants. Office of Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy. National Renewable Energy Laboratory. Innovation for Our Energy Future. Wind Energy Technology: Current .
|Language:||English, Spanish, Arabic|
|ePub File Size:||25.78 MB|
|PDF File Size:||17.62 MB|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Regsitration Required]|
Wind energy is a converted form of solar energy which is produced by the nuclear Wind energy represents a mainstream energy source of new power. ➢The era of wind electric generators began close to 's. ➢The first modern wind turbine, specifically designed for electricity generation, was constructed. reader with the developments in this sector with particular reference to Rajasthan . wind energy sunit mathur development in rajasthan. Demonstration project at.
The faster the average wind speed, the more electricity the wind turbine will generate, so faster winds are generally economically better for wind farm developments. The balancing factor is that strong gusts and high turbulence require stronger more expensive turbines, otherwise they risk damage.
The average power in the wind is not proportional to the average wind speed, however.
For this reason, the ideal wind conditions would be strong but consistent winds with low turbulence coming from a single direction. Mountain passes are ideal locations for wind farms under these conditions.
Mountain passes channel wind blocked by mountains through a tunnel like pass towards areas of lower pressure and flatter land. Bureau of Land Management. From these wind farms, developers learned a lot about turbulence and crowding effects of large-scale wind projects previously unresearched in the U. Meteorological wind data alone is usually not sufficient for accurate siting of a large wind power project.
Collection of site specific data for wind speed and direction is crucial to determining site potential   in order to finance the project. Part of the Biglow Canyon Wind Farm , Oregon , United States with a turbine under construction The wind blows faster at higher altitudes because of the reduced influence of drag.
The increase in velocity with altitude is most dramatic near the surface and is affected by topography, surface roughness, and upwind obstacles such as trees or buildings.
Third, they might be attracted to wind turbine towers as such tall elements dominating the landscape might attract insects [ 18 ] or be perceived as potential roosts or even as vantage mating sites [ 19 ]. Today, modern wind turbine towers are much taller than in the past [ 20 ], which might augment negative effects on bat populations.
Indeed, some studies have found a positive exponential relationship between number of bats killed and turbine tower height, whereas the size of the rotor-swept zone diameter of rotor blades had no influence [ 21 , 22 ].
On the other hand, increasing turbine heights might shift the species-specific risks towards high-height aerial hunting and commuting species while alleviating the risk for species mainly flying above ground level. In addition, species-specific risk may be modulated by environmental and wind conditions.
Yet, the lack of quantitative information about species-specific vertical activity profiles impedes recommending targeted mitigation strategies.
We put a particular emphasis on three locally rare bat species: the two sibling mouse-eared bats Myotis myotis and M. Our main objective was to propose targeted evidence-based management measures for reducing the number of bat fatalities at the tall wind power plants rotor-swept zone 50— m above ground that are currently under rapid deployment.
Materials and methods Ethics statement Species data were obtained by means of automatic recording outside protected areas, therefore no permits for handling of endangered species or for access to protected areas was required. Permits for crane installation on public grounds were issued by the two concerned communities Fully and Ardon.
The valley bottom is situated at approximately m a.
Altogether, 27 bat species have been recorded in Valais [ 23 ], with two species of high conservation concern breeding within 8 km of the planned wind farm. The European free-tailed bat T. It roosts in sheer limestone cliffs adjacent to the valley bottom [ 26 ].
The lesser mouse-eared bat M. It breeds in a church attic 2 km from the closest planned wind turbine, forming a mixed colony with the less threatened, but locally rare sibling species M.
More information about the local bat community is given in Supporting Information S1 File.
Bat recordings Vertical bat activity was recorded from near-ground level 5 m up to 65 m above ground level a. In addition, bat activity at ground level 1 m was recorded at six foreseen wind turbine sites ValEole 1—6, coordinates see S1 Table in order to better assess local bat assemblages and to relate bat activity to wind speed at ground level S1 Fig.
Bat echolocation calls were automatically recorded from dusk to dawn recording length was adjusted to night length with Batloggers Elekon AG, Luzern, Switzerland equipped with an elongated wire microphone, extended rechargeable battery pack and protective box Strongbox, Elekon AG. These recorders operate within the 10— kHz frequency range; the lower frequency sensitivity was important in this study because T. In the automatic mode, the Batlogger constantly monitors the microphone signal.
Recording is triggered for a maximum of 15 s, including 0. By producing artificial ultrasounds originating from shaking keys within a distance of approximately 10 m, microphone functionality and sensitivity was checked before any night recording session and faulty microphones were replaced when needed.
Detection distance differs between bat species depending on call intensity and frequency.
This relative bias could not be accounted for but remained constant throughout the study. Vertical activity profiles In order to investigate the vertical activity profiles of bats, a truck-mounted crane Liebherr LTM —5. In short, two rigid metal cables were spanned from the top of the crane telescopic arm down to the ground, where they were anchored in two 2. Along each cable, five Batloggers were positioned at different heights 5, 20, 35, 50 and 65 a.
Two anemometers were fixed on the cables at 10 and 70 m above the ground. Bat activity was recorded during 9 nights from July to October S1 Table.
Activity at foreseen wind turbine sites A total of 12 Batloggers were used at ground level for acoustic surveys of bat activity at the six foreseen wind turbine sites. A pair of ground-based bat detectors was installed within m distance of a projected wind turbine site, one among fruit tree plantations, another in an adjacent open field cropland or grassland , so as to capture the bat community in the two locally dominant habitat types.
Constant measures of wind speed were obtained from a nearby anemometer situated at 35 m a. Due to absence of bat activity on October 14th and 15th cold nights and on May 16th adverse weather , we excluded these recording nights from our analyses. Data analysis Data extraction and bat identification The software BatScope 2.
As a recorded sequence corresponds to a bat passing next to the microphone, we shall term it bat pass hereafter. Only bat calls with a signal-to-noise ratio SNR greater than 30 dB were retained. For each continuous sequence, single calls were cut out, parameterised and subsequently identified using the BatScope 2.
Finally, the call information was summarized over a sequence for final species assignment.
We had to pool the recordings of the two mouse-eared bat species M. For those two species and T. Quantifying the number of bat passes The numbers of bat passes per hour recorded by the two devices installed at each height along the cables were averaged in order to retain only one activity index per height. Although there was a less pronounced overlap in recordings between two adjacent heights due to longer distance in between S4 Fig , we did not account for this potential bias because it was not possible to allocate bat passes recorded simultaneously to a single height while averaging between height levels would have made no sense.
This resulted in an overall overestimation of bat pass counts, which we considered as evenly distributed across height levels and thus as affecting neither the statistical outcome nor the interpretation of vertical activity patterns.
To build vertical activity profiles, we used the absolute number of bat passes per hour at each height, considering 1 all recorded species pooled; 2 the two most common recorded species P. Bat activity at ground level at all foreseen wind turbine sites was also estimated from the number of bat passes per hour.
Effect of wind speed on bat activity Wind speed for each height at the crane was interpolated from the data recorded with the anemometers at 10 and 70 m a.
S2 Table using Eq 1. For the six foreseen wind turbine sites, we extrapolated wind speed at 5 m a. Eqs 1 and 2 are related to the logarithmic wind profile, which is commonly used to extrapolate wind speed from different heights [ 31 ]. In order to appraise the relationships between bat activity and wind speed, we relied on three different metrics.Because recordings from the two recorders situated at the same height were averaged, subsequent analyses were based on bat passes.
A wind farm may also be located offshore. In particular, induction generators cannot support the system voltage during faults, unlike steam or hydro turbine-driven synchronous generators. Research about bird and bat fatalities at wind farms has established that turbines might be even more detrimental to bats than to birds [ 4 , 5 ]. Mountain passes channel wind blocked by mountains through a tunnel like pass towards areas of lower pressure and flatter land. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files.
- BENGALI JOKES PDF FILE
- AMERICAN ENGLISH FILE 1 STUDENT BOOK WORKBOOK
- PRINT PDF FILE
- HOW TO ALL PDF FILES ON A WEB PAGE
- PDF FILE READER APP FOR MOBILE
- PDF FILES PYTHON
- NEW ENGLISH FILE ELEMENTARY BUSINESS RESOURCE BOOK
- PDF FILE OPEN APP FOR ANDROID
- SHORTHAND LEARNING BOOK
- SHRIMAD BHAGAVAD GEETA PDF
- SSC CGL EXAM SYLLABUS PDF
- A EMPAREDADA DA RUA NOVA PDF
- BLACK BOOK OF COMMUNISM
- LAURANN DOHNER NUMBERS EPUB