FRAGILITY OF THE SOUL PDF
The Fragility of the Soul: Insights from PIA STERN. Art Review by Grady Harp. IA STERN makes art and in doing so she explores the mysteries of existence, not. Aidan Higgins: The Fragility of Form .. a habitual frequenter of Berlin, is especially telling: “In the evening there, in little cul de sacs, the soul seems to dissolve. of emotions. she has the fragility of goodness: luck and ethics in greek. nussbaum the fragility of goodness pdf - wordpress - character or soul may be preserved from interference from the world and how character (hexis) and activity .
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On the Antifragility of Riots, Love, and Other Unexpected Beneficiaries of Stress. Please Ban My Book: .. Doxastic commitment, or soul in the game. The Robert. 𝗣𝗗𝗙 | We review evidence on a group recently identified as "at risk," that is, youth in upwardly lenging, or “soul-draining” (Warner, , p. PDF | The Dark Night of the Soul is an expression describing phases in a person's spiritual life associated with a crisis of conflict and the fragility of the subject.
Moneyed young men are most likely to achieve the ultimate alpha male status of being desired as sexual partners by many girls. Thus, these young men may struggle to create a sense of sexuality separate from their financial prowess Khan, Plausible fallouts include low capacity for authentic caring at the least and at the worst, chauvinistic, callous attitudes toward women.
Nothing will change. And they work! Mothers and fathers: Role models and caregivers A longstanding and inarguable tenet in child development is that children model what they observe in their same-sex parents.
Narcissistic Fragility in the Process of Befriending the Unfamiliar
Accordingly, we consider parallels between young women in affluent contexts and their mothers, and similarly, between boys and their fathers. One of the first parallels between upper-middle class young women and their mothers is perfectionism. The idealization of motherhood in America has promulgated standards of perfection that are beyond unrealistic Slaughter, Douglas and Michaels , p. What are the tasks that these mothers must master, effortlessly or otherwise?
First, whether or not they work outside the house, upper-middle class mothers disproportionately shoulder the myriad tasks of child-rearing and household management. If mothers are in fact disproportionately the primary parent, then the quality of relationship with them should have greater ramifications for the children, and this is what we have found. In multivariate analyses of overall attachment i. All this must be accomplished while proficiently coordinating multiple busy schedules.
Warner , p.
Women who stay with careers are equally challenged. Employed professional women experience dual pressures of high performance in careers and also as mothers Luthar, They put in the same long hours at work as their male colleagues.
At the same time, they are less likely than men to hold jobs that offer flexibility or family friendly benefits, face more scrutiny and prejudice on the job as mothers than fathers do, and are paid less than their male counterparts Coontz, ; Slaughter, Most importantly, high demands at work do not imply diminished expectations as a mother.
Turning next to affluent boys and fathers, many more young men today, than in the past, are concerned about how they might balance active parenthood with their future careers Slaughter, High-paying jobs imply high stakes, and thus high stress. Missteps are costly, and the fall from the top can be long and exceedingly painful.
As Marano , p.
Newman, Finally, highly paid jobs often require a great deal of time away from families. Furthermore, fathers in high-earning jobs often have long absences away from home, and this can entail significant difficulties in reintegrating into family life. The same is true for many fathers in affluence.
Research has demonstrated the nontrivial effects of fathers on upper-middle class children. More strikingly, among late-adolescent boys, perceived paternal depression seems to be a significant risk factor. Plausibly, these patterns are a by-product of identification with the same-sex parent. Consider the pursuit of intrinsic life goals relative to wealth and status.
External locus of control beliefs have risen as well, with youth seeing their success as depending largely on luck, rather than effort. Believing that success is determined largely by luck presages despair or learned helplessness, and is also associated with impulsive actions like shoplifting and fighting Twenge, In academically elite schools, students are competing with many other highly groomed peers.
This can only happen if parents have the money and time to run interference. Worries were less about the academic challenges in college than about how they would handle the logistics of everyday living: dealing with a difficult roommate, trouble with courses, food not to their liking, or a malfunctioning laundry machine.
Dark Nights of the Soul
Advances in technology may contribute also via unease in developing intimate relationships. With texting and tweeting rampant, teens tend to feel they are connecting with friends online but in fact, they are disconnecting from friends in real life Akhtar, Recent reports have highlighted effects on college graduating seniors.
Because rendezvous typically occur via instant messaging and Facebook posts, for example, these young adults reportedly are often naive about the basic mechanics of traditional courtship. What would you say? What words would you use? The Ecological Context: The Culture of Affluence and Costs of Wealth We turn next to the ecosystem Bronfenbrenner, : the cultural context shaping the lives of upper-middle class parents and children. Americans today have far more material luxuries than they had in the s e.
Before proceeding further, we note an important caveat: it is not the possession of wealth in itself, but the overemphasis on status and wealth, that compromises well-being Luthar, In discussions that follow, we consider various mechanisms via which affluence can potentially exacerbate psychological vulnerability.
To begin with, relatively high affluence offers a surfeit of choices Schwartz, b. As Schwartz has argued, the high degree of autonomy implied by personal wealth leads many to believe that they can live exactly the kind of lives they want.
People come to expect perfection not only in their lives but also in themselves. Aside from illusions of control, another reason for enhanced vulnerability lies in the addictive potential of wealth, because of rapid habituation. The skilled athlete enlists in competitive teams year-round field hockey followed by basketball and then lacrosse and the talented drummer plays not just for the jazz band but also for orchestra and the pep band with all the required practices and rehearsals.
Academically, these students take every advanced placement course they possibly can, even when they are ill equipped to handle the stringent curricula Tierney, By implication, adults currently in the bottom quartile of the highest income brackets would compare themselves with those earning more than them, and thus be apt to feel discontent regardless of their own absolute wealth.
Among upwardly mobile youth, this can play out in intense competition, with each academic award or extracurricular distinction zealously coveted by all eligible, particularly at the most elite schools cf. Chase, Trade-offs of wealth versus intrinsic rewards Life patterns associated with high wealth can thwart the attainment of many critical socioemotional rewards.
Tenacious commitment to high productivity leaves little time to pursue rewards such as friendships, art, and spirituality Csikszentmihalyi, ; Deiner, ; Schor, , and mental health is compromised among people strongly invested in extrinsic goals involving high status, relative to intrinsic goals such as relationships and personal growth Kasser, ; Ryan et al.
In experimental research, Quoidba, Dunn, Petrides, and Mikolajczak demonstrated that the possession of and even the reminder of high income was linked with reduced abilities to savor the small pleasures in everyday life; low savoring abilities in turn were linked to lower happiness. There is a parallel among children, with little time for leisure pursuits simply for fun. Successes are very public, as are mistakes. There is scant time or space to pursue the Eriksonian exploration of who they are as individuals, nurturing their unique interests, passions, and life goals.
This is seen in increasing reports of already very rich and financially adroit professionals resorting to white-collar crimes for still more wealth Stewart, These students can pay well to have others do their assignments or take their examinations; if caught, they have the hefty backup parental armamentarium of power, money, and attorneys to bail them out.
The rich, therefore, are the least likely to experience the security of deep social connectedness that is available to people whose circumstances force them into mutual dependence Myers, Findings on American youth are consistent, as seen in our previously described findings on poorer adjustment among children whose own families emphasized personal success far more strongly than personal decency and kindness.
In addition, among college students, the least happy, and most depressed, were those with weak ties to family and friends, and low commitment to spending time with them Diener, We need also to explore variations by type of school, including public versus private schools, those in suburbs versus cities, and same-sex versus mixed-gender schools.
Paralleling comparisons of teens in high-achieving schools with national norms, comparable studies of young adults would be invaluable, and this could be accomplished relatively easily via anonymous surveys in colleges.
As a beginning step, in large lecture courses, psychology instructors might administer well-normed instruments of distress and well-being.
In pooling the data for cross-college comparisons, institutional anonymity could be maintained by using, as identifiers, rough percentile rank of each college sampled, within the U. It would be useful to know if denizens of the most competitive institutions do report more stress or substance use, and are less satisfied with life overall, than are those of ostensibly less prestigious schools.
Ultimately, it would be optimal if data on campus well-being were considered along with other institutional ranking indicators such as richness of course offerings, selectivity of admissions, and alumni donations. This information would be invaluable for students and parents as they select among colleges, and it could also help colleges monitor, and eventually foster, positive psychological adaptation among their students in addition to scholarly excellence.
Vulnerability and protective mechanisms in resilient adaptation Aside from examining mean adjustment levels across diverse elite settings, we urgently need in-depth attention to the subgroups of youth manifesting unusually high distress, examining antecedents and sequelae of their maladjustment via prospective, longitudinal research.
Sophisticated contemporary statistical techniques e. In addition, we must explore the potential long-term costs of high disturbance across different adjustment domains, and across different developmental periods. In resilience research, positive adaptation or risk evasion is conceptually guided and defined relative to the specific risk condition experienced Luthar et al.
Refraining from excessive alcohol and drug use would be a second critical criterion acknowledging that some experimentation before departure for college is developmentally normative. A third would be levels of distress and of personal well-being that are in the normal range for teenagers in general, and a fourth would be at least average grades and extracurricular achievements. Finally, we do not know whether there are substantive differences between youth from the upper-middle class as opposed to the most elite.
Disentangling issues of race and ethnicity must be a priority. As an alternative to school- or community-based sampling in future research, we might tap into organizations targeting high-achieving ethnic minorities, such as Jack and Jill of America, with African American membership Turnley-Robinson, , to identify similarities and differences in challenges experienced.
Science Theory Phenomenology Evidence-based phenomenology. Psychological Post traumatic Post traumatic Well- Being syndrome growth. Decision Model-based Heuristic-based Convex Making probabilistic decision heuristics decision making making.
Economic Life Bureaucrats Entrepreneurs effect on economic life. Reputation Academic, Postal employee, Artist, Writer profession corporate truck driver, executive, Pope, train conductor Bishop, Politician.
Reputation Middle Class Minimum wage Bohemian, class persons aristocracy, old money. Medicine Via positiva Via negativa Additive treatment Subtractive give medication treatment remove items from consumption, say cigarettes, carbs, etc. Stress Chronic stressors Acute stressors, with recovery. Decision Acts of Acts of omission Making commission missed opportunity. Finance Public Debt Private debt Convertible with no bailout. General Large Small but Small but not specialized specialized.
Risk taking Markowitz Kelly criterion Kelly criterion using nite bets. Finance Banks, Hedge funds Hedge funds Hedge funds managed by some some econophasters. Noise- Signal Signal only Stochastic resonance, simulated annealing. Education Soccer mom Street life Barbell: So the exception, the rare event, plays an inconsequential role in the aggregate and the long-term. You cannot double your weight in a single day, not even a month, not possibly in a yearbut you can double your net worth or lose half of it in a single moment.
By comparison, if you take the sale of novels, more than half of sales and perhaps 90 percent of profits tends to come from the top 0. So financial mattersand other economic matterstend to be from Ex- tremistan, just like history, which moves by discontinuities and jumps from one state to another. Municipal GRAPHIC noise, distributed variations in the souks rst compared to that of cen- tralized or human-managed systems second or, equivalently, the income of a taxi driver rst and that of an employee second.
The second graph shows moves taking place from cascade to cascade, or Black Swan to Black Swan. Human overintervention to smooth or control processes causes a switch from one kind of system, Mediocristan, into another, Ex- tremistan. This effect applies to all manner of systems with constrained volatilityhealth, politics, economics, even someones mood with and without Prozac.
Or the difference be- tween the entrepreneur-driven Silicon Valley rst and the banking system second. When randomness concentrates, we get the second type, the sneaky Extremistan.
TABLE 3 3. Steady feedings, thermal Medical error stability, etc. Ecology Micromanaging forest res Worsening total risks larger big ones.
Economics No More Boom and Bust Fragility Greenspan US , Labor UK , Great Moderation Bernanke Deeper crises when they happen State interventionism Support for established, Optimization state-friendly corporations; stiing of entrepreneurs Illusion of pricing rare events, value-at-risk methodologies, Vulnerability, illusion of economies of scale, pseudo-efciency ignorance of second-order effects Big-time blowups.
Business Positive advice charlatans , Richer charlatans, focus on return not risk bankrupt businesses what to avoid. Urbanism City planning Urban blight, inner cities, depressions, crime. Forecasting Forecasting in Black Swan Hidden risks People take Domain Fourth Quadrant more risks when supplied in spite of the horrible with a forecast track record.
Literature Copy editors trying to Blander, more New change your text York Timesstyle commoditized writing. Parenting Soccer mom or pop: Touristication of removing every random childrens minds element from childrens lives. Education The entire concept is Ludicationtransformation grounded in interventionism of childrens brain.
Technology Neomania Fragility, alienation, nerdication.
Teachers, professors, employers, parents, and students weigh in.
Social scientists and economists have no built-in consciousness of iatro- genics, and of course no name for itwhen I decided to teach a class on model error in economics and finance, nobody took me or the idea seri- ously, and the few who did tried to block me, asking for a theory as in Semmelweiss story and not realizing that it was precisely the errors of theory that I was addressing and cataloguing, as well as very idea of using a theory without considering the impact of the possible errors from theory.
For a theory is a very dangerous thing to have. And of course one can rigorously do science without it. What scien- tists call phenomenology is the observation of an empirical regularity without a visible theory for it. In the Triad, I put theories in the fragile category, phenomenology in the robust one. Theories are superfragile; they come and go, then come and go, then come and go again; phenom- enologies stay, and I cant believe people dont realize that phenomenol- ogy is robust and usable, and theories, while overhyped, are unreliable for decision makingoutside physics.
Physics is privileged; it is the exception, which makes its imitation by other disciplines similar to attempts to make a whale fly like an eagle. Figure 5 shows the asym- metry: Gain X Thales antifragility.
He pays little to get a huge potential. We can see the asym- metry between upside and downside. All the reader needs to note from f X f X f Xf X. Assume you start from the You Are the Here picture spot. In is thetherstnonlinearity case, should the that variableis,x the increase,asymmetry, Gain Gain i. The graph illustrates how positive asymmetry rst graph turns into convex inward curvingVariable and negative asymmetry second graph Pain Variable turns into Pain X X You are here You are here Things concave That Pain Pain Like outward Dispersion curving.
To repeat, for a set deviation in a variable, in equivalent amounts in both directions, the convex gains more than it loses, and the reverse for the concave. One property of the option: In the rst case, should the variable x increase, i.
The behind them than a large number Now the idea that inhas theinhabited megraph all my illustrates lifeIhownever positive asymmetry realized rst it could of graph people turns who appreciate into convex their work.
“I can, therefore I must”: Fragility in the upper-middle classes
Figure 13 illustrates the ef- concave like the outward work dontcurving. To repeat, count for a set there deviation is no such inthing a variable, as the in equivalent oppositeamounts of buy-in fect of harm and the unexpected. The more concave an exposure, the both directions, the convex gains more than it loses, and the reverse for the concave. So very this absence of negative domain for book sales provides the author with large deviations have a disproportionately larger and larger effect.
Figure 13 illustrates the ef- fect of harm and the unexpected.
The more concave an exposure, the more harm from the unexpected, and disproportionately so. So very large deviations have a disproportionately larger and larger effect.Decision Acts of Acts of omission Making commission missed opportunity. The soul holds opinions and makes mistakes; it is not vision, or at least not at first, but an aim.
Doran, SJ ed. External locus of control beliefs have risen as well, with youth seeing their success as depending largely on luck, rather than effort.
In them misery is indivisibly both primordial limitation and original evil. Indeed, by using a kind of persuasion, Pascal invites us to forgo diversion and to pierce the veil of pretense by which we hide from our true situation. There is scant time or space to pursue the Eriksonian exploration of who they are as individuals, nurturing their unique interests, passions, and life goals.
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