TRANSFORMER DETAILS PDF
choose the correct transformer kVA for the application, given the voltage, current, and properly ground a transformer, and the secondary electrical system. Transformer Basics and the Transformer Principals of Operation as how a Single Phase Transformer Generates a Magnetic Circuit from a Sinusoidal AC Supply. The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are: • The core, which makes a path for the magnetic flux. • The primary coil, which receives energy from .
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A transformer is an electrical apparatus designed to convert alternating current from one voltage to .. Please contact the factory if further details are required. state-of-the-art tools and techniques for evaluating transformer condition. While on-line condition of transformers (more detail is included for oil-filled power. What is Electrical Transformer? Construction of a Transformer - Parts of a Transformer Operation & Working Principle of a Transformer. Types of Transformer.
The steel should have high permeability and low hysteresis loss.
Transformer, Construction, Working, Types Application & Limitations
For this to happen, the steel should be made of high silicon content and must also be heat treated. By effectively laminating the core, the eddy-current losses can be reduced. The lamination can be done with the help of a light coat of core plate varnish or lay an oxide layer on the surface.
For a frequency of 50 Hertz, the thickness of the lamination varies from 0. Types of Transformers Types by Design The types of transformers differ in the manner in which the primary and secondary coils are provided around the laminated steel core.
Components of a Transformer
According to the design, transformers can be classified into two: 1. The coils used for this transformer are form-wound and are of cylindrical type. Such a type of transformer can be applicable for small sized and large sized transformers. In the small sized type, the core will be rectangular in shape and the coils used are cylindrical.
The figure below shows the large sized type.
Parts of a Power Transformer
You can see that the round or cylindrical coils are wound in such a way as to fit over a cruciform core section. In the case of circular cylindrical coils, they have a fair advantage of having good mechanical strength.
The cylindrical coils will have different layers and each layer will be insulated from the other with the help of materials like paper, cloth, micarta board and so on. The general arrangement of the core-type transformer with respect to the core is shown below.
Both low-voltage LV and high voltage HV windings are shown. Core Type Transformer Cruciform Section Core Type Transformers The low voltage windings are placed nearer to the core as it is the easiest to insulate. The effective core area of the transformer can be reduced with the use of laminations and insulation.
The comparison is shown in the figure below. Core Type and Shell Type Transformer Winding The coils are form-wound but are multi layer disc type usually wound in the form of pancakes.
Paper is used to insulate the different layers of the multi-layer discs. The whole winding consists of discs stacked with insulation spaces between the coils.
These insulation spaces form the horizontal cooling and insulating ducts.
Such a transformer may have the shape of a simple rectangle or may also have a distributed form. This will help in minimizing the movement of the device and also prevents the device from getting any insulation damage. A transformer with good bracing will not produce any humming noise during its working and will also reduce vibration.
A special housing platform must be provided for transformers.
Usually, the device is placed in tightly-fitted sheet-metal tanks filled with special insulating oil. This oil is needed to circulate through the device and cool the coils. It is also responsible for providing the additional insulation for the device when it is left in the air. There may be cases when the smooth tank surface will not be able to provide the needed cooling area. In such cases, the sides of the tank are corrugated or assembled with radiators on the sides of the device.
The oil used for cooling purpose must be absolutely free from alkalis, sulphur and most importantly moisture. Even a small amount of moistures in the oil will cause a significant change in the insulating property of the device, as it lessens the dielectric strength of the oil to a great extent. Thus, the tanks are protected by sealing them air-tight in smaller units. When large transformers are used, the airtight method is practically difficult to implement. In such cases, chambers are provided for the oil to expand and contract as its temperature increases and decreases.
These breathers form a barrier and resist the atmospheric moisture from contact with oil. Special care must also be taken to avoid sledging.
Sledging occurs when oil decomposes due to overexposure to oxygen during heating. It results in the formation of large deposits of dark and heavy matter that clogs the cooling ducts in the transformer.
The quality, durability and handling of these insulating materials decide the life of the transformer. Since the winding links with the core, current flowing through the winding will produce an alternating flux in the core. EMF is induced in the secondary coil since the alternating flux links the two windings. The frequency of the induced EMF is the same as that of the flux or the supplied voltage.
Click image to enlarge Working of a Transformer By so doing variation of flux energy is transferred from the primary coil to the secondary coil by means of electromagnetic induction without the change in the frequency of the voltage supplied to the transformer. During the process, a self induced EMF is produced in the primary coil which opposes the applied voltage.
Limitation of the Transformer To understand the main points, we have to discuss some basic terms related to transformer operation. So lets back to basic for a while.
A transformer is an AC machine that steps up or steps down an alternating voltage or current. It sounds a bit weird though.
Electromagnetism The interaction between magnetic field and electric current is termed electromagnetism.
Current carrying conductors produces magnetic field when current passes through it. Movement of electrons in a conductor will result to electric current drifted electrons which occurs as a result of the EMF set up across the conductor.
The EMF set up across the conductor can be in form of that stored in chemical energy or magnetic field. Current carrying conductor placed in a magnetic fields will experience mechanical force while a conductor placed in a magnetic field will have its electrons drifted which will results to electric current.
Field Flux Two magnets of unlike poles will attract each other while magnets of like poles will repel each other so it is with electric charges. Every magnet is surrounded by a force field and is represented by imaginary lines emanating from the north pole of a magnet going into the south pole of the same magnet.The alternating current supply is given to the first coil and hence it can be called as the primary winding.
It is used to sense the faults occurring inside the transformer. Automatic tap changers are also available.
In other words, When an E. Hi there, Please add the selected topics to the transformer.
Electromagnetic Induction Electromagnetic induction is a phenomenon that explains how EMF and current is or can be induced in a coil when a coil and a magnetic field interact. It is expensive. The transformer is housed in a thin sheet metal box open at both ends through which air is blown from the bottom to the top. The number of turns made shall be the multiple of the number of turns in the low voltage winding. It is a simple relay that is operated by the gases emitted during the decomposition of transformer oil during internal faults.
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