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The information in this SMARTbook and quick reference guide is distributed on The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook translates and bridges operational-level. SUTS2: The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook, 2nd Ed. (Leading, Planning & Conducting Tactical Operations). Download, view and print a FREE PDF sample!. Leading, Planning & Conducting Tactical Operations This is the second revised edition of The Small Unit Tactics SMARTbook (SUTS2), featuring the full scope.

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It is authoritative and provides guidance in the form of combat tested concepts and ideas for the employment of available means to win in combat.

These tactics are not prescriptive in nature, and they require judgment in application. The tactical level of war is the level of war at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces JP Activities at this level focus on the ordered arrangement and maneuver of combat elements in relation to each other and to the enemy to achieve combat objectives.

It is important to understand tactics within the context of the levels of war. The strategic and operational levels provide the context for tactical operations.

Without this context, tactical operations are just a series of disconnected and unfocused actions. Strategic and operational success is a measure of how one or more battles link to winning a major operation or campaign. In turn, tactical success is a measure of how one or more engagements link to winning a battle. The Offense The offense is the decisive form of war. While strategic, operational, or tactical con- siderations may require defending for a period of time, defeat of the enemy eventually requires shifting to the offense.

Army forces strike the enemy using offensive action in times, places, or manners for which the enemy is not prepared to seize, retain, and exploit the operational initiative.

Operational initiative is setting or dictating the terms of action throughout an operation ADRP The main purpose of the offense is to defeat, destroy, or neutralize the enemy force.

Additionally, commanders conduct offensive tasks to secure decisive terrain, to deprive the enemy of resources, to gain information, to deceive and divert the enemy, to hold the enemy in position, to disrupt his attack, and to set the conditions for future successful operations. While the offense is the most decisive type of combat operation, the defense is the stronger type.

Defend a Reverse Slope Security Operations Forms of Security Operations Area Security Local Security Fundamentals of Security Operations Reconnaissance Operations Reconnaissance Fundamentals Forms of the Reconnaissance The Route Reconnaissance The Zone Reconnaissance The Area Reconnaissance Reconnaissance in Force RIF Relief in Place Sequential, Simultaneous or Staggered Passage of Lines Encirclement Operations Offensive Encirclement Operations Defending Encircled Troop Movement Methods of Troop Movement Movement Techniques Near Ambush Far Ambush Ambush Categories Security Team Support Team Assault Team Infltrate to the Objective Actions on the Objective Swarming Attack Planning and Preparation Small Unit Operations in Urban Areas Isolate the Building Assault a Building Entering a Building Clearing Rooms Moving in the Building Clearing Hallway Junctions Clearing a T Intersection Clearing Stairwells and Staircases Follow Through Attacking Fortifed Areas Finish Fighting Enemies in Fortifcations Knocking out Bunkers Assaulting Trench Systems Entering the Trenchline Clearing the Trenchline Moving in a Trench Organization of Patrols Elements of a Combat Patrol Assault Element Support Element Security Element Traveling Techniques Traveling Overwatch Bounding Overwatch Attack Formations The Line The File The Staggered Column The Wedge The Diamond Crossing a Danger Area Patch-to-the-Road Method Heart-Shaped Method Bypass Method Box Method Crossing Large Open Areas Establishing a Security Halt Cigar-Shaped Method Wagon Wheel Method Establishing a Hide Position Back-to-Back Method Star Method Establishing a Patrol Base It includes the ordered arrangement and maneuver of units in relation to each other, the terrain and the enemy to translate potential combat power into victorious battles and engagements.

Russell Bassett. The Tactical Level of War Through tactics, commanders use combat power to accomplish missions. The tactical-level commander employs combat power to accomplish assigned missions. Without this context, tactical operations are reduced to a series of disconnected and unfocused actions.

Tactical operations always require judgment and adaptation to the unique circum- stances of a specifc situation. Techniques and procedures are established patterns that can be applied repeatedly with little or no judgment in a variety of circumstanc- es. Tactics, techniques, and procedures TTP provide commanders and staffs with a set of tools to use in developing the solution to a tactical problem.

Individuals, crews, and small units Individuals, crews, and small units act at the tactical level. At times, their actions may produce strategic or operational effects.

However, this does not mean these elements are acting at the strategic or operational level. Actions are not strategic unless they contribute directly to achieving the strategic end state. Similarly, actions are considered operational only if they are directly related to operational movement or the sequencing of battles and engagements. The level at which an action occurs is determined by the perspective of the echelon in terms of planning, preparation, and execution. Tactical Mission Fundamentals I.

The Art of Tactics Ref: Through tactics, commanders use combat power to accomplish missions. The tactical-level commander uses combat power in battles, engagements, and small-unit actions.

A battle consists of a set of related engagements that lasts longer and involves larger forces than an engagement. Battles can affect the course of a campaign or major operation. An engagement is a tactical confict, usually between opposing, lower echelons maneuver forces JP Engagements are typically conducted at brigade level and below. They are usually short, executed in terms of minutes, hours, or days. The Science and Art of Tactics The tactician must understand and master the science and the art of tactics, two dis- tinctly different yet inseparable concepts.

Commanders and leaders at all echelons and supporting commissioned, warrant, and noncommissioned staff offcers must be tacticians to lead their soldiers in the conduct of full spectrum operations.

The Science The science of tactics encompasses the understanding of those military aspects of tacticscapabilities, techniques, and proceduresthat can be measured and codi- fed.

The science of tactics includes the physical capabilities of friendly and enemy organizations and systems, such as determining how long it takes a division to move a certain distance. It also includes techniques and procedures used to accomplish specifc tasks, such as the tactical terms and control graphics that comprise the language of tactics.

While not easy, the science of tactics is fairly straightforward. Much of what is contained in this manual is the science of tacticstechniques and procedures for employing the various elements of the combined arms team to achieve greater effects. Mastery of the science of tactics is necessary for the tactician to understand the physical and procedural constraints under which he must work.

These constraints include the effects of terrain, time, space, and weather on friendly and enemy forces. Howeverbecause combat is an intensely human activitythe solution to tactical problems cannot be reduced to a formula.

This realization necessitates the study of the art of tactics. The Art The art of tactics consists of three interrelated aspects: An art, as opposed to a science, requires exercising intuitive faculties that cannot be learned solely by study. The tactician must temper his study and evolve his skill through a variety of relevant, practical experiences.

The more experience the tactician gains from practice under a variety of circumstances, the greater his mastery of the art of tactics. There are three aspects to the art of tactics that defne a competent tactician: Domain Knowledge Note: The frst is the creative and fexible application of the tools available to the commander, such as doctrine, tactics, techniques, procedures, training, organizations, materiel, and soldiers in an attempt to render the enemys situational tactics ineffective.

The tactician must understand how to train and employ his forces in full spectrum operations. The factors of mission, enemy, terrain and weather, troops, time available, and civil consid- erations METT-TC are variables whose infnite mutations always combine to form a new tactical pattern. They never produce exactly the same situation; thus there can be no checklists that adequately address each unique situation. Because the enemy changes and adapts to friendly moves during the planning, preparation, and execution of an operation, there is no guarantee that a technique which worked in one situation will work again.

Each tactical problem is unique and must be solved on its own merits. Decision Making Under Conditions of Uncertainty The second aspect of the art of tactics is decision making under conditions of uncer- tainty in a time-constrained environment and demonstrated by the clash of opposing willsa violent struggle between two hostile, thinking, and independent opposing commanders with irreconcilable goals.

Each commander wants to impose his will on his opponent, defeat his opponents plans, and destroy his opponents forces. Combat consists of the interplay between these two opposing commanders, with each com- mander seeking to accomplish his mission while preventing the other from doing the same. Every commander needs a high degree of creativity and clarity of thought to outwit a willing and able opponent. He must quickly apply his judgment to a less than omniscient common operational picture provided by his command and control C2 system to understand the implications and opportunities afforded him by the situa- tion.

The commander always uses the most current intelligence in order to facilitate his visualization of the enemy and environment.

That same C2 system transmits the decisions resulting from his situational understanding to those individuals and units required to engage and destroy the enemy force. The Human Dimension The third and fnal aspect of the art of tactics is understanding the human dimension what differentiates actual combat from the problems encountered during training and in a classroom. Combat is one of the most complex human activities, characterized by violent death, friction, uncertainty, and chance.

Success depends at least as much on this human aspect as it does on any numerical and technological superiority. The tactician cannot ignore the human aspect.

He seeks to recognize and exploit indicators of fear and weakness in his enemy, and to defeat the enemys will, since soldiers remain key to generating combat power. More than any other human activity, continuous combat operations against an intelligent enemy takes a toll on soldiers, severely straining their physical and mental stamina. This creates in soldiers the tan- gible and intangible effects of courage, fear, combat experience, exhaustion, isolation, confdence, thirst, and anger.

Leaders must be alert to indicators of fatigue, fear, lapses in discipline standards, and reduced morale in friendly and enemy soldiers.

These conditions can have a cumula- tive effect on units that can lead to collapse. The tactician must understand how they affect human endurance and factor them into his plans. He must understand the limits of human endurance in combat.

Success in tactical problem solving results from the aggressive, intelligent, and decisive use of combat power in an environment of uncertainty, disorder, violence, and danger. A commander wins by maintaining the initiative and forcing the enemy to react to friendly operations, initiating combat on the commanders own termsat a time and place of the commanders choosing.

A commander should never surrender the initiative once it is gained. The commander should build momentum quickly to win decisively through the simultaneous rapid application of available combat power while operating inside the enemys decisionmaking cycle, and mastering the transitions between the defense to the offensive and vice versa.

This allows the commander to maximize friendly and minimize enemy combat power by preventing the enemy from fghting as a combined arms force.

Offensive action is almost always the key to achieving decisive results. Command- ers conduct the offense to achieve assigned missionsdestroying enemy forces or seiz- ing terrainthat cumulatively produce the effects required by the operational commander. Circumstances may require defending; however, tactical success normally requires shift- ing to the offense as soon as possible.

The offense ends when the forces conducting it accomplish their missions, reach their limits of advance, or approach culmination. Those forces then consolidate, resume the attack, or prepare for other operations. Commanders initiate combat on their own terms to gain important advantages. This allows the massing of the effects of combat power against selected inferior and isolated enemy units in vulnerable locations. Possession of the initiative allows a commander to continually seek vulnerable spots and shift the decisive operation when opportunities occur.

A commander seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative by Maneuvering more rapidly than the enemy to gain positional advantage the place where the effects of fres are most destructive over the enemy Employing frepower to facilitate and exploit positional advantage Sustaining subordinate forces before, during, and after the engagement with the enemy Achieving and maintaining a better understanding of the tactical situation than that possessed by enemy decision makers Planning beyond the initial operation and anticipating possible events The commander tenaciously and aggressively presses the battle.

The commander ac- cepts risk while leading Soldiers and pushing systems to their limits. Commanders seek ways to build momentum quickly by seizing the initiative and execut- ing operations at a high tempo. Momentum complements and helps to retain the initiative. Concentrating combat power at the decisive place and time overwhelms an enemy and gains control of the situation.

Rapid maneuver to place the enemy in a disadvantageous position also builds momentum. Momentum allows the commander to create opportuni- ties to engage the enemy from unexpected directions with unanticipated capabilities.

Having seized the initiative, the commander continues to control the relative momentum by taking action to maintain focus and pressure, controlling the tempo of operations, and creating and exploiting opportunities, while always assessing the situation and taking prudent risks. The mission command system assists the rapid building of momentum by allowing the commander to see and understand the situation so quickly that subordinate forces can act before the enemy forces can react to the initial situation.

The operations process fo- cuses on executing rather than planning. Modern information systems allow compressed planning and effective incremental adjustments to the plan during execution. This allows the commanders forces to adapt more quickly to emerging threats and opportunities, as they are identifed. Making decisions quicklyeven with incomplete informationis crucial. Commanders and staffs at higher echelons require frequently updated, relevant information from lower echelons, particularly in regards to friendly and enemy force dispositions and activities.

Commanders choose from a number of tactical options to create the solution to the tacti- cal problem facing them. Although commanders solve specifc tactical problems facing them by following the general principles as outlined in ADRP There is no single, doctrinally correct, procedurally derived solution to any problem.

The commander who employs the more appropriate tactics, given the existing situation, has a distinct advan- tage over an opponent, even if their forces have equal combat power. The commander uses a mastery of the art and science of tactics, an understanding of the situation, and sound judgment to create unique solutions appropriate to the mis- sion and the other specifc mission variables of METT-TC.

There are usually several solu- tions that might work, although some will be more effective than others. The commander seeks a solution that defeats the enemy in the time available at the least cost in blood and materiel. The solution should be decisive and posture the unit for future missions, while providing the greatest fexibility for unexpected enemy actions or reactions.

The solution must be in accordance with the higher commanders intent. A thorough under- standing of the enemy greatly assists the commander in the development of workable solutions.

Commanders visualization is the doctrinal term for this process. The commander should train to be able to cut to the heart of a situation, recognize its important elements, and base decisions on those important elements as a part of master- ing the Army profession. Commanders develop this capability after years of education in military schools, self-study, and practical training experiences, which eventually develop the intuitive faculties required to solve tactical problems.

Doctrine requires human judgment when applied to a specifc situation. In choosing a solution to a tactical problem, applicable laws and regulations, the mission, the laws of physics, human behavior, and sustainment realities constrain commanders, but standard- ized tactics, techniques, and procedures codifed in Army doctrine as best practices do not.

The true test of the solution to any military problem is not whether it uses the specifc tactics, techniques, or procedures contained in this manual and subordinate manuals, but whether the tactics, techniques, and procedures used were appropriate to the situa- tion. Tactical profciency is not defned by mastery of written doctrine, but by the ability to employ available means to win battles and engagements.

A solution may not match any previous doctrinal example; however, the language used to communicate that concept must be technically precise and doctrinally consistent, using commonly understood and accepted doctrinal terms and concepts. Transitions between the different elements and primary tasks of operations are diffcult and, during execution, may create unexpected opportunities for Army or enemy forces.

Commanders and their supporting staffs must quickly recognize such opportunities, de- veloping transitions as branches or sequels during the planning process and act on them immediately as they occur. A transition from an emphasis on one element of operations to another is a complex operational consideration.

Tactical victory occurs when the opposing enemy force can no longer achieve its tactical objectives or prevent friendly forces from accomplishing their mission.

That is the end goal of all offensive and defensive tasks. Decisive tactical victory occurs when the enemy no longer has the means to oppose the friendly force. It also occurs when the enemy admits defeat and agrees to a negotiated end of hostilities. Historically, a rapid tactical victory results in fewer friendly casualties and reduced resource expenditures. In closing, solutions to tactical problems are a collective effort.

Success results from the commanders plan and the ability of subordinates to execute it. Commanders must have full confdence in their subordinates mastery of the art and science of tactics and in their ability to execute the chosen solution. Deliberate Operations A hasty operation is an operation in which a commander directs his immediately available forces, using fragmentary orders FRAGOs , to perform activities with minimal preparation, trading planning and preparation time for speed of execution.

A deliberate operation is an operation in which a commanders detailed intelligence concerning the situation allows him to develop and coordinate detailed plans, includ- ing multiple branches and sequels. He task organizes his forces specifcally for the operation to provide a fully synchronized combined arms team. He conducts exten- sive rehearsals while conducting shaping operations to set the conditions for the conduct of his decisive operation.

Most operations lie somewhere along a continuum between these two extremes. Choices and Trade-offs The leader must choose the right point along the continuum to operate.

His choice involves balancing several competing factors. He bases his decision to conduct a hasty or deliberate operation on his current knowledge of the enemy situation, and his assessment of whether the assets available to include time , and the means to coordinate and synchronize those assets, are adequate to accomplish the mission.

If they are not he takes additional time to plan and prepare for the operation or bring additional forces to bear on the problem. The commander makes that choice in an environment of uncertainty, which always entails some risk.

Risk Reduction Uncertainty and risk are inherent in tactical operations and cannot be eliminated. A commander cannot be successful without the capability of acting under conditions of uncertainty while balancing various risks and taking advantage of opportunities.

Although the commander strives to maximize his knowledge about his forces, the terrain and weather, civil considerations, and the enemy, he cannot let a lack of information paralyze him. The more intelligence on the enemy, the better able the commander is to make his assessment.

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Less information means that the command- er has a greater risk of making a poor decision for the specifc situation. Risk Reduction Factors Ref: Unifed Land Operations Defned Unifed land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter confict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favor- able confict resolution ADP Unifed land operations is the Armys operational concept and the Armys contribution to unifed action.

Goal of Unifed Land Operations The goal of unifed land operations is to apply land power as part of unifed action to defeat the enemy on land and establish conditions that achieve the joint force commanders end state.

Todays operational environments require commanders to demonstrate the core competencies of combined arms maneuver and wide area security conducted through offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks to reach this goal.

The central idea of unifed land operations is how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks to prevent or deter confict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable confict resolution. Where possible, military forces working with unifed action partners seek to prevent or deter threats.

However, if necessary, military forces possess the capability in unifed land operations to prevail over aggression. Foundations of Unifed Land Operations By integrating the four foundations of unifed land operationsinitiative, decisive action, Army core competencies, and mission commandArmy commanders can achieve strategic success. Strategic success requires full integration of U.

The foundations of unifed land operations begin and end with the exercise of individual and operational initiative. Initiative is used to gain a position of advantage that degrades and defeats the enemy throughout the depth of an organization.

The Army demonstrates its core competencies through decisive action. The Armys two core competenciescombined arms maneuver and wide area securityprovide the means for balancing the application of Army war fghting functions within the tactical actions and tasks inherent in the offense, defense, and stability overseas, or defense support of civil authorities in the United States. By demonstrating the two core competencies, Army forces: Defeat or destroy an enemy, Seize or occupy key terrain, Protect or secure critical assets and populations, and Prevent the enemy from gaining a position of advantage C h a p 1 C h a p 1 Operational Concept II.

The Armys Ref: Seize, Retain and Exploit the Initiative All Army operations aim to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative and achieve decisive results. Operational initiative is setting or dictating the terms of action throughout an operation. Individual initiative is the willingness to act in the absence of orders, when existing orders no longer ft the situation, or when unforeseen op- portunities or threats arise. Initiative gives all operations the spirit, if not the form, of the offense.

It originates in the principle of war of the offensive. This principle goes beyond simply attacking. It requires action to change the situation on the ground. Risk and opportunity are intrinsic in seizing the initiative. To seize the initiative, commanders evaluate and take prudent risks as necessary to exploit opportunities. Initiative requires constant effort to control tempo and momentum while maintaining freedom of action. This offensive mindset, with its focus on initiative, is central to the Armys operational concept and guides all leaders in the performance of their duty.

It emphasizes opportunity created by developing the situation through decisive action, whether in offensive, defensive, stability, or defense support of civil authorities tasks. In combined arms maneuver, commanders compel the enemy to respond to friendly action. In the offense, it involves taking the fght to the enemy and never allowing en- emy forces to recover from the initial shock of the attack.

In the defense, it involves preventing the enemy from achieving success and then counterattacking to seize the initiative.

The object is more than just killing enemy personnel and destroying their equipment. Combined arms maneuver forces the enemy to react continuously and fnally to be driven into untenable positions. Seizing the initiative pressures enemy commanders into abandoning their preferred courses of action, accepting too much risk, or making costly mistakes.

As enemy mistakes occur, friendly forces seize op- portunities and create new avenues for exploitation. Ultimately, combined arms ma- neuver aims to break the enemys will through relentless and continuous pressure. Decisive Action Army forces demonstrate the Armys core competencies through decisive action the continuous, simultaneous combinations of offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks.

In unifed land operations, commanders seek to seize, retain, and exploit the initiative while synchronizing their actions to achieve the best effects possible. Operations conducted outside the United States and its territories simultaneously combine three elementsoffense, defense, and stability.

Within the United States and its territories, decisive action combines the ele- ments of defense support of civil authorities and, as required, offense and defense to support homeland defense. See following pages pp. The mission determines the relative weight of effort among the elements. Tactical Mission Fundamentals II. Unified Land Operations Unifed land operations describes how the Army seizes, retains, and exploits the initia- tive to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations through simultaneous offensive, defensive, and stability operations in order to prevent or deter confict, prevail in war, and create the conditions for favorable confict resolu- tion.

The Armys Operational Concept T a c t i c a l M s n T a c t i c a l M s n F u n d a m e n t a l s F u n d a m e n t a l s Decisive action requires simultaneous combinations of offense, defense, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks. Offensive Tasks An offensive task is a task conducted to defeat and destroy enemy forces and seize ter- rain, resources, and population centers.

Offensive tasks impose the commanders will on the enemy. In combined arms maneuver, the offense is a task of decisive action. Against a capable, adaptive enemy, the offense is the most direct and a sure means of seizing, retaining, and exploiting the initiative to gain physical and psychological advantages and achieve defnitive results.

In the offense, the decisive operation is a sudden, shatter- ing action against an enemy weakness that capitalizes on speed, surprise, and shock.

If that operation does not destroy the enemy, operations continue until enemy forces disintegrate or retreat to where they no longer pose a threat. Executing offensive tasks compels the enemy to react, creating or revealing additional weaknesses that the attack- ing force can exploit.

For discussion of offensive tasks, see chap. Defensive Tasks A defensive task is a task conducted to defeat an enemy attack, gain time, economize forces, and develop conditions favorable for offensive or stability tasks.

Normally the defense alone cannot achieve a decision. However, it can set condi- tions for a counteroffensive or counterattack that enables Army forces to regain the initiative. Defensive tasks can also establish a shield behind which wide area security can progress.

Defensive tasks are a counter to the enemy of- fense. They defeat attacks, destroying as much of the attacking enemy as possible.

They also preserve and maintain control over land, resources, and populations. The purpose of defensive tasks is to retain terrain, guard populations, and protect critical capabili- ties against enemy attacks.

Commanders can conduct defensive tasks to gain time and economize forces so offensive tasks can be executed elsewhere. For discussion of defensive tasks, see chap.


Stability Tasks Stability is an overarching term encompassing various military missions, tasks, and activi- ties conducted outside the United States in coordination with other instruments of na- tional power to maintain or reestablish a safe and secure environment, provide essential governmental services, emergency infrastructure reconstruction, and humanitarian relief.

See JP Army forces conduct stability tasks during both combined arms maneuver and wide area security. These tasks support a host-nation or an interim government or part of a transitional military authority when no government exists.

Stability tasks involve both coercive and constructive actions. They help to establish or maintain a safe and secure environment and fa- cilitate reconciliation among local or regional adversar- ies.

Stability tasks can also help establish political, legal, social, and economic institutions while supporting the transition to legitimate host-nation governance.

Stability tasks cannot suc- ceed if they only react to enemy initiatives. Stabil- ity tasks must maintain the initiative by pursuing objectives that resolve the causes of instability. For discussion of stability tasks, see chap. Federal military forces, Department of Defense civilians, Depart- ment of Defense contract personnel, Department of Defense component as- sets, and National Guard forces when the Secretary of Defense, in coordination with the Governors of the affected States, elects and requests to use those forces in Title 32, U.

Code, status. This support is in response to requests for assistance from civil authorities for domestic emergencies, law enforcement support, and other domestic activities, or from qualifying entities for special events. Defense support of civil authori- ties is a task that takes place only in the homeland, although some of its tasks are similar to stability tasks. Defense support of civil authorities is always conducted in support of another primary or lead federal agency. Refer to JP for further discussion.

Army Core Competencies Army forces demonstrate their core competencies of combined arms maneuver and wide area security by combining offensive, defensive, and stability or defense support of civil authorities tasks simultaneously.

As part of a combined arms force within unifed land operations, Army forces accept prudent risk to create opportuni- ties to achieve decisive results. They employ synchronized action of lethal and non- lethal effects, proportional to the mission and informed by an understanding of an operational environment. Mission command that conveys commanders intent guides the adaptive use of Army forces.

Mission Command Mission command is the exercise of authority and direction by the commander using mission orders to enable disciplined initiative within the commanders intent to em- power agile and adaptive leaders in the conduct of unifed land operations see Army doctrine on mission command.

Exercised by Army commanders, it blends the art of command and the science of control while integrating the war fghting functions to con- duct the tasks of decisive action. Mission command has six fundamental principles: Build cohesive teams through mutual trust Create shared understanding Provide a clear commanders intent Exercise disciplined initiative Use mission orders Accept prudent risk As a philosophy, mission command is essential to the Armys core competencies.

Mission command illuminates the Army leaders responsibility to understand, visual- ize, describe, direct, lead, and assess. It provides commanders and staff with a philosophy for operating in an uncertain environment as opposed to trying to create certainty and impose order and control over a situation.

Mission command recog- nizes that Army leaders command not only Army forces but also work with diverse unifed action partners. Mission command emphasizes the critical contributions of leaders at every echelon. It establishes a mindset among Army leaders that the best understanding comes from a synthesis of information and an understanding from all echelons and unifed action partnersbottom-up input is as important as top-down guidance.

Mission command emphasizes the importance of creating shared under- standing and purpose. Mission command is the overarching term for both the warfghting function and the philosophy of command. Mission command guides Army leaders how to think about what subordinate leaders and their Soldiers do to conduct successful operations on land.

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Termodinamica Cengel 7th Cengel Michael A. Boles of 72 results for "thermodynamics cengel 7th"..Commanders choose from a number of tactical options to create the solution to the tacti- cal problem facing them. Unified Land Operations Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative to gain and maintain a position of relative advantage in sustained land operations in order to create the conditions for favorable conflict resolution.

A CCIR is: Division and higher headquarters normally plan exploitations as branches or sequels. The decisive operation is the operation that directly accomplishes the mission.

Attack by Fire Position. F to ATTP It provides commanders and staff with a philosophy for operating in an uncertain environment as opposed to trying to create certainty and impose order and control over a situation. They balance the ability of accomplishing the mission with the ability to project and sustain the force.

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