Laws Photography Techniques Pdf


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TIPS AND. TECHNIQUES. FOR BETTER. PHOTOGRAPHY. FIRST PHOTOGRAPH TAKEN BY JOSEPH NICÉPHORE NIÉPCE IN FRANCE. IN , ON A. Portrait photography: definition. Portrait photography or portraiture is photography of a person or group of people that displays the expression, personality. DIGITAL PHOTOGRAPHY TECHNIQUES. Julie Adair King. McGraw-Hill/Osborne . New York Chicago San Francisco Lisbon London Madrid Mexico City.

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Sometimes, however, it is necessary in portrait photography to use a large- aperture lens with a larger maximum aperture than is offered with such zoom lenses. Digital cameras employ an electronic sensor consisting of a large number of square cells or “pixels”. Photons hitting a cell create an electrical charge. In this post we present useful photographic techniques, tutorials and Home- Made High Speed Photography (PDF) Pictures of high-speed.

How to Capture Motion Blur in Photography Capturing movement in images is something that many photographers only need to do when photographing sports or other fast-moving events. Long Exposure Photos Long exposure can be used to create very interesting photographs.

It can be used, for example, to create a bright photo in low-light conditions or to create motion blur for moving elements in a photograph. Near-infrared images straight out of the camera do not always look good and are usually not as dramatic and beautiful as normally captured images. Hence, a lot of post-processing is done to enhance these images. Here you can found plenty of theory and useful information about IR adaptors for flashlights.

Among the resources is a huge collection of links related to invisible light photography. Infrared photography Huge article with a number of useful links.

Nearly complete list of IR filters and digital cameras that can be updated for IR shooting. Night Photography 60 Beautiful Examples Of Night Photography 60 amazing examples of night photography, created by some hard-working and dedicated photographers.

Take a look at their websites and portfolios. The Nocturnes The Nocturnes is an organization dedicated to night photography. Founded by Tim Baskerville in San Francisco in , it has grown to become the premier source of information and education on night photography, as well as an international community for night photographers.

Lost America night photography Wandering the deserted backroads of the American Southwest, Troy Paiva has explored the abandoned underbelly of America since the s. Learn Night Photography Quick and dirty guide to defining exposure time for typical night subjects. The intersection of the larger arc of radius 2.


The slope of the line joining A and B is the Contrast Index. Point A is located on the characteristic curve 0. The slope of the line joining A and B is the average gradient. All are useful, but the numbers are not interchangeable.

Comparing the gamma of one film to the CI of another can lead to inconclusive or misleading results. Before comparing films, be sure you are comparing apples with apples. Generally, a more important term is print contrast.

Print contrast is probably better referred to as gradation or print grade. It refers to the tonal change in the print, relative to the density change in the negative.

The higher the print contrast, the better the separation of tones; but the high and low ends may lose detail. Low contrast may better accommodate a negative with an extreme density range, but the midtones may often blend together.

Choosing the correct print contrast can make dodging and burning much easier. Matching the print contrast to the negative is an important first step in producing a good print. But, oftentimes, photographers overlook other, equally important considerations.

A concept that is frequently ignored is that of overall contrast versus local contrast. Going from one extreme to the other brightest highlight to darkest shadow is the overall contrast, but might not be the best way to determine how the photograph will look. Sometimes you have to let overall contrast seem out of hand too-bright sky, too-dark shadows to produce the best print.

Getting a good black-and-white photograph is a result of understanding how the scene contrast translates to negative contrast to print contrast, while choosing whether to weigh overall contrast or local contrast more heavily.

The primary control for contrast in a negative is film development. Photographers are often introduced to the idea of adjusting film development when they investigate the Zone System. Then they begin to try using Zone System procedures to establish the correct film developing time.

The tests can be tedious and confusing, but it need not be so difficult. The Zone System is a method of accurately testing film, paper, developers, and any other physical material that affects the final photograph.

The Zone System allows the photographer to achieve certain film densities, which, in turn, will yield previsualized print tones.

The Zone System allows certain changes of film negative densities for specific results, usually called expansion or contraction developments. If you want more information on the Zone System, please refer to chapter 23 of my first book, Mastering Black-andWhite Photography. Also, the Ansel Adams books, especially The Negative, offer an exhaustive and technical look at the Zone System and are considered by many to be the best sources of information.

By doing a series of tests that are simpler and a bit more intuitive than the Zone System, you can discover the benefits of adjusting your film developing and see how it relates to the film exposure. Nothing so clearly demonstrates the effects of changing film exposure and developing as making those changes while controlling other potential variables.

By making a series of matched exposures and varying the developing times, you can see the effects on the resulting negatives. If you then print some of those negatives at a controlled exposure with no dodging or burning e. Such a test can be performed with any format, camera, film, and developer.

The most critical aspect is to keep extensive notes, so you can determine which change caused what effect. This test is laborious, repetitious, and somewhat tedious. However, it can be a shortcut to understanding and improving your negatives. In and of itself, this research will give you no more information than if you made similar changes through trial-and-error methods. It can also aid you in standardizing your film speed and developing time.

While the tone cube might provide you with information of a real-world type, a pleasing scene is more fun to work with. It can also help you to determine the best film speed and developing time for your equipment and materials. The test requires an entire roll of film 36 exposure is recommended. When you load the film, mark the right side of the initial frame with a permanent marker explained below before closing the back and advancing the film three frames.

This makes it easier to cut proper lengths for developing. A tripod is helpful and strongly suggested, but not necessary. The tripod allows you to concentrate on the procedure without having to recompose the picture after every exposure.

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Use of a spot meter to determine exposures is recommended. The spot meter will help you to see the differences in specific areas of the frame. Other meters, such as incident or averaging reflected meters, will also work.

I would strongly recommend against using a matrix or evaluative metering system which many cameras have , especially if it varies the metering pattern. This system may be good for beginners, but knowledgeable photographers want their metering to be repeatable.

By definition, any meter that varies the pattern cannot be repeatable. Using such a meter on which to base your decisions can yield inconsistent information. For example, if the system detects large amounts of highlights, it will increase the exposure. Obviously, that can make it difficult to predict the results. Most photographers I know prefer to make those decisions themselves.

If you have a matrix metering system and it can be disabled, you should set it for a normal pattern. One of the variables you need to control is the light, which should be as consistent as possible. This means that there should be no change in quantity or quality of light during the series of exposures. Choose a day when the light is constant. This is important to the procedure. If it is partly cloudy, wait for the clouds to pass before continuing.

The entire series of exposures should not take longer than ten or fifteen minutes once you have begun. Use the Work Sheet at the end of this chapter to help you to determine exposure and to record your settings. For the best results, please follow the instructions precisely. Loading the Camera When you load the film into the camera, mark the film along the right edge of the film aperture the opening of the focal plane shutter , using a permanent marker fig. Make note of the number of frames you advance the film after closing the back.

Image by Fabio Montalto. Viewpoint Before photographing your subject, take time to think about where you will shoot it from. Our viewpoint has a massive impact on the composition of our photo, and as a result it can greatly affect the message that the shot conveys.

Rather than just shooting from eye level, consider photographing from high above, down at ground level, from the side, from the back, from a long way away, from very close up, and so on. The unusual viewpoint chosen here creates an intriguing and slightly abstract photo.

Image by ronsho. Background How many times have you taken what you thought would be a great shot, only to find that the final image lacks impact because the subject blends into a busy background?

The human eye is excellent at distinguishing between different elements in a scene, whereas a camera has a tendency to flatten the foreground and background, and this can often ruin an otherwise great photo. Thankfully this problem is usually easy to overcome at the time of shooting - look around for a plain and unobtrusive background and compose your shot so that it doesn't distract or detract from the subject. The plain background in this composition ensures nothing distracts from the subject.

Image by Philipp Naderer. Depth Because photography is a two-dimensional medium, we have to choose our composition carefully to conveys the sense of depth that was present in the actual scene.

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You can create depth in a photo by including objects in the foreground, middle ground and background. Another useful composition technique is overlapping, where you deliberately partially obscure one object with another. The human eye naturally recognises these layers and mentally separates them out, creating an image with more depth.

Emphasise your scene's depth by including interesting subjects at varying distances from the camera.

Image by Jule Berlin. Framing The world is full of objects which make perfect natural frames, such as trees, archways and holes. By placing these around the edge of the composition you help to isolate the main subject from the outside world.

The result is a more focused image which draws your eye naturally to the main point of interest.Use the Work Sheet as an aid.

Combine and layer multiple images to transform your photography into anything you can imagine. Composition in photography is far from a science, and as a result all of the "rules" above should be taken with a pinch of salt.

I was tired of sending lots of different links to people.

The meter reading should not change as you make the series of exposures, so check it as you go. A small but important difference. John Bouma — Marieke Shirren Lim —. By making a series of matched exposures and varying the developing times, you can see the effects on the resulting negatives.

Smoke Art Photography - An Introduction This articles features smoke art photography tips from Stoffel De Roover; it describes the typical setup, important techniques and necessary adjustments for a perfect smoke art photo. Another related term is scene contrast.

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