PROGRAMMING PARADIGMS PDF
In Chapter 2 we will discuss each of the main programming paradigms in some details. Be aware, however, that this material is about the functional. Programming Paradigms. (Lectures on High-performance Computing for Economists VII). Jesús Fernández-Villaverde,1 Pablo Guerrón,2 and. This chapter gives an introduction to all the main programming paradigms, give a taxonomy of almost 30 useful programming paradigms and how they are.
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Programming paradigms. Imperative programming languages. Ada, ALGOL, BASIC, Blue, C, C++, C#, Ceylon, CHILL,. COBOL, D, eC, FORTRAN, GAUSS, Go. Programming Languages & Paradigms. 2. CSD Univ. of Crete. Fall Programming Language Timeline. • FlowMatic. ♢ Grace Hopper UNIVAC. Programming Paradigms and Beyond. Shriram Krishnamurthi and Kathi Fisler. Brown University [email protected] and [email protected] Draft of a chapter .
Moreover, if a modification must be made in one of its states or conditions, it is difficult and time consuming to do so.
These drawbacks make using this paradigm very expensive. Procedural programing follows a clearly defined set of steps, which include problem definition, detailed specification, and iterative coding and modular testing Yevick, Structured programming facilitates program understanding and modification and has a top-down design approach, where a system is divided into compositional subsystems.
The structured programming concept was formalized by Corrado and Giuseppe, who demonstrated theoretical computer program design through loops, sequences and decisions. Edsger, developed structural programming functionality as a widely used method, in which a program is divided into multiple sections with multiple exits and one access point.
It has given the possibility that software components can be constructed and reused with considerably more credibility. There are now many case studies in which the reuse of object-oriented components has been made and analyzed.
Object-oriented programming relates the programming activity to that of modeling or simulation; objects are identified by a correspondence with the objects found in the application area of the program and are used to model those domain operations. Object-oriented programming also opens the prospect of more flexible software that is able to respond dynamically to the needs of the application at runtime Iain, Object-oriented programming OOP is a programming paradigm that uses "objects" — data structures encapsulating data fields and procedures together with their interactions — to design applications and computer programs.
Object-oriented programming OOP is a software programming model constructed around objects. This model compartmentalizes data into objects data fields and describes object contents and behavior through the declaration of classes methods.
OOP features includes encapsulation, polymorphism, and inheritance. Although many people are participating in the change, few people realize that it is occurring and even fewer people know why it is happening. Scripting languages are designed for different tasks than system programming languages, and this leads to fundamental differences in the languages.
System programming languages were designed for building data structures and algorithms from scratch, starting from the most primitive computer elements such as words of memory. In contrast, scripting languages are designed for gluing: they assume the existence of a set of powerful components and are intended primarily for connecting components together. System programming languages are strongly typed to help manage complexity, while scripting languages are typeless to simplify connections between components and provide rapid application development John, Scripting languages and system programming languages are complementary, and most major computing platforms since the 's have provided both kinds of languages.
The languages are typically used together in component frameworks, where components are created with system programming languages and glued together with scripting languages. However, several recent trends, such as faster machines, better scripting languages, the increasing importance of graphical user interfaces and component architectures, and the growth of the Internet, have greatly increased the applicability of scripting languages.
These trends will continue over the next decade, with more and more new applications written entirely in scripting languages and system programming languages used primarily for creating components. The boundary between the scripting programming languages and the traditional ones is somewhat blurry. However, it is possible to highlight a few characteristics of scripting languages, to include bytecode-interpreted, garbage collector for memory handling, high-level data types, integrateable execution environment, ability to access modules written in lower-level languages.
Minarova compared OOP paradigm with Fundamental paradigms. He submitted that, though there are many advantages and disadvantages of using various paradigms, there is no single programming style which fit all problems well.
Jothi Kalpana et al employed datamining techniques to discover performance level. Based on the applied clustering method, they were able to predict low grades on time, which draws attention of such students and management for devising means of improvement before graduation. Raheela et al present a case study on predicting performance of students at the end of a university degree at an early stage of the degree programme.
The data of four academic cohorts comprising Undergraduate Students were mined with different classifiers. The result shows that it is possible to predict the graduation performance in 4th year university using only pre-university marks and marks of 1st and 2nd year courses, with no socio-economic or demographic features, but with a reasonable level of accuracy. The result of the experiment shows that Rule-Based predicts best with Due to the strength and the features of various programming languages division, students tend to perform better in one of the languages than the other.
Thus, this study is designed to compare the student performance in programming courses as regards to the division of programming languages.
Basically, we shall be comparing the performances of computer science students in procedural, structured, object-oriented and scripting programming paradigm. Our evaluation will be a view to analyzing the performance with relative to the nature of each paradigm. E 11 Correlation is significant at the 0. Table 2 presents the classification of students according to their entry mode. It shows 45 For D.
Further analysis in Figure 6 shows that, in procedural paradigm, where there were no D. They still maintain their classical performance in Scripting Programming by dumping the rest students Figure 9. Students were kept in the coolant.
Undergraduate - Unit
Also, the results show that, with logical and sequential arrangement of programming courses at the appropriate levels, students find it easy to get along and improve upward as changes in their learning is just a matter of learning newer syntax and perhaps newer environment but still the same fundamental programming technique and generalized structure that any language must follow.
Ahmad, F. Applied Mathematical Sciences, Vol. Amirah, M.
Barrow, K. Ben Y.
Programming Language Paradigms & The Main Principles of Object-Oriented Programming
Bohm, C. May Procedural : Imperative programming with procedure calls. Functional Applicative : Programming with function calls that avoid any global state. Function-Level Combinator : Programming with no variables at all.
Object-Oriented : Programming by defining objects that send messages to each other. Objects have their own internal encapsulated state and public interfaces.
Object orientation can be: Class-based: Objects get state and behavior based on membership in a class. Prototype-based: Objects get behavior from a prototype object. Event-Driven : Programming with emitters and listeners of asynchronous actions. Flow-Driven : Programming processes communicating with each other over predefined channels.
Logic Rule-based : Programming by specifying a set of facts and rules. An engine infers the answers to questions.
Constraint : Programming by specifying a set of constraints.
An engine finds the values that meet the constraints. Aspect-Oriented : Programming cross-cutting concerns applied transparently. Reflective : Programming by manipulating the program elements themselves.Retrieved from " https: Structured : Programming with clean, goto-free, nested control structures.
Polymorphism and Higher-functions PDF. John K. As a consequence, no one parallel programming language maps well to all computation problems.
In addition, the derived class may contain additional state instance variables , and may exhibit additional behavior new methods to resond to new messages. Mashaela, A.
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