# LOGIC GATES BOOKS PDF

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The Karnaugh map squares are labeled so that horizontally or vertically adjacent squares differ only in one variable. (Each square in the top row is considered to. ⬋Simplifying Boolean expressions. ◇ Today's lecture. ▫ Logic gates and truth tables. ▫ Implementing logic functions. ▫ CMOS switches. 2. CSE, Lecture 4. Logic gates and figuring out how to read them. • Logical Circuit Equivalence. • NAND NOR and XOR truth tables. • Using the rules to create and read the.

Nevertheless, the prevailing trend in technology clearly favors the digital approach over the 'old' analog one, indicating significant advantages of this 'new' technology.

Let's explore the main advantages with the following analogy.

Imagine that you are in a concert hall with two 'musicians' who are hidden from the audience by a curtain. The task for the performers is simple: they are each asked to play a single note on their instrument and then the audience is asked to describe the sound intensity or if they even heard that instrument was played.

After the first performer plays a few identical notes on a violin you probably would get a wide response from the listeners ranging from 'quiet' to 'loud'. After all, the perception is subjective and based on the listener's music preference, hearing capability and distance from the player.

## كتاب 02 – Boolean Algebra and Logic Gates

Furthermore, depending on the relationship between how loud the note was played and how loud the background noise was in the hall, it may even be hard for the listeners to discern the state of the instrument, i. Next imagine the second player, who uses an extremely loud and obnoxious sounding car horn as his instrument.

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Again he plays one note by turning the horn on or off multiple times. Now, most listeners would clearly agree on the state of the perceived sound intensity, i. As long as the car horn is louder than the background noise level in the concert hall a very likely condition no ambiguity of the signal state exits.

If our only concern is to make certain that the audience perceives the signal's state, i. By using an instrument capable of only producing two clearly discernable states, complete silence and ear piercing noise, he is able to transmit his message across the concert hall without ambiguity or errors.

## Digital Systems

It should come as no surprise why this digital message system works so well; after all, it was designed to work in an extremely noisy environment, such as traffic, to deliver a clear warning message. In summary, by only using clearly identifiable states, digital technology is able to transmit a signal state that is almost immune to noise.

By the same reasoning, it follows that these states can also be duplicated and stored without degradation by ambient noise.

In digital technology, such a binary 'signal' is referred to as a 'bit' and its state as 'on' or 'off'. So storing numbers is easy. But how can you add, subtract, multiply, and divide using nothing but electric currents? Calculators and computers do this using clever electronic circuits called logic gates. Let's take a closer look at what they are and how they work. Photo: A gate can keep you out or let you into a field.

In the same way, a microscopic logic gate is a barrier in an electronic circuit that can let electricity through or stop it flowing altogether.

Put lots of logic gates together and you make a machine that's capable of basic mathematical "reasoning. It receives two incoming electric currents, compares them, and sends on a new, outgoing electric current depending on what it finds. A logic gate is a bit like a doorman or bouncer who is allowed to let people into a nightclub only if they pass certain tests.

You go along with a friend one night. If you're both wearing ties, you'll get in. If only one of you is wearing a tie, or if neither of you is, neither of you will get in.

An AND logic gate works the same way with two electrical inputs. If both inputs are switched on that is, carry a number 1 , the output will be 1 as well. Otherwise the output will be 0.

Learn more. Logic functions provide ways to combine different digital signals or signals that can only take one of two possible levels, low level 0 and high level 1 , based on the laws of Boolean algebra. These laws are applied using logic gates, which can be classified according to the number of available inputs.

A logic function can take four states: Digital Electronics 1: Combinational Logic Circuits.

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## Introduction to digital logic

If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Chapter 2.Table of equivalent digital logic representations.

By continuing to use this site you agree to our use of cookies. These additional three gates are used so frequently that they have been awarded their own name and symbol.

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We have made it easy on ourselves by using multi-input gates, such as the three-input AND and the four-input OR gate. By using an instrument capable of only producing two clearly discernable states, complete silence and ear piercing noise, he is able to transmit his message across the concert hall without ambiguity or errors.

See if you can implement the table below and show that it conforms to the Boolean expression listed below the table: It receives two incoming electric currents, compares them, and sends on a new, outgoing electric current depending on what it finds.